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  • The International Hydrogeological Map of Europe, scale 1:1,500,000 is a series of general hydrogeological maps comprising 25 map sheets with explanatory notes, covering the whole European continent and parts of the Near East. The national contributions to this map series were compiled by hydrogeologists and experts in related sciences of the countries concerned under the auspices of the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) and its Commission on Hydrogeological Maps (COHYM). The project is supported by the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW).The scientific editorial work is supported financially by the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany through the Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR) and by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). These organizations are responsible for the cartography, printing and publication of the map sheets and explanatory notes.The series of hydrogeological maps seeks to represent the hydrogeological setting of Europe as a whole without regard to political boundaries. Together with the information presented in the accompanying explanatory notes, the map can be used for scientific purposes, for large-scale regional planning and as a basis for detailed hydrogeological mapping.

  • The International Hydrogeological Map of Europe, scale 1 : 1,500,000 is a series of general hydrogeological maps comprising 25 map sheets with explanatory notes, covering the whole European continent and parts of the Near East. The national contributions to this map series were compiled by hydrogeologists and experts in related sciences of the countries concerned under the auspices of the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH), Commission on Hydrogeological Maps (COHYM). The project is supported by the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW). The scientific editorial work is supported financially by the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany through the Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR) and by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). These organizations are responsible for the cartography, printing and publication of the map sheets and explanatory notes. The series of hydrogeological maps seeks to represent the hydrogeological setting of Europe as a whole without regard to political boundaries. Together with the information presented in the accompanying explanatory notes, the map can be used for scientific purposes, for large-scale regional planning and as a basis for detailed hydrogeological mapping.

  • The NPP Database contains documented field measurements of NPP for global terrestrial sites compiled from published literature and other extant data sources. The NPP Database contains biomass dynamics, climate, and site-characteristics data georeferenced to each intensive site. A major goal of the data compilation is to use consistent and standard well-documented methods to estimate NPP from the field data. Other important components of the database include a summary, investigator contact information, and a list of key references for each site. As far as possible, the original principal investigator or his/her successor has been contacted to review the data and documentation. The NPP Database currently contains detailed data for over 60 intensive study sites. A majority of these sites are grasslands, the remainder being tropical forests, boreal forests, and tundra study sites. Some combination of above-ground annual peak live biomass data and/or seasonal biomass dynamics data are available for all sites. Many sites also have data on below-ground biomass and/or turnover. Estimates of net primary productivity are included, where available, for individual sites, and as part of the NPP Summary tables. Climate and soils data are available for all sites in varying degrees of detail. The sites have been grouped according to vegetation maps based upon Bailey ecoregions, Holdridge Life-Zones, Matthews vegetation classes, and Olson World Ecosystem Complexes. Previously compiled multi-site data sets of georeferenced NPP estimates are also provided. NPP estimates are available from a number of different collections, containing more than 1700 sites but with less information available for each individual site as compared to the intensive sites. Records for these sites typically include an NPP value, latitude and longitude, original source of the data, and sometimes information on vegetation type, management, soils, and local climate. More information on the entire Net Primary Productivity Project can be found at the NPP home page, with links to further details on individual study sites or multi-site collections. Users are encouraged to browse these Web pages to find details of original studies, methodologies, and original research contacts Data Citation: Cite the data sets using the following reference format: Author, P. A., and M. B. Author. Year. Data Set Title. Available on-line from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. For example: Williamson, P., and J. Pitman. 1999. NPP Grassland: Beacon Hill, U.K. 1972-1973. Available on-line from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]TWM_NPP ]

  • The purpose of the SNF study was to improve our understanding of the relationship between remotely sensed observations and important biophysical parameters in the boreal forest. A key element of the experiment was the development of methodologies to measure forest stand characteristics to determine values of importance to both remote sensing and ecology. Parameters studied were biomass, leaf area index, above ground net primary productivity, bark area index and ground coverage by vegetation. Thirty two quaking aspen and thirty one black spruce sites were studied. Aspen is an early successional, shade intolerant species. Aspen stands are essentially even aged, and stand age appears to be the most significant difference among sites in determining stand density, average diameter, and biomass density. Biomass density was highest in stands of older, larger trees and decreased in younger stands with smaller, denser stems. Since all aspen stands had closed canopies, the inverse relationship between biomass density and stem density suggests a series of stands in various stages of self thinning. Biomass density and projected LAI were much more variable for spruce than aspen. Spruce LAI and biomass density have a tight, nearly linear relationship. Stand attributes are often determined by site characteristics. Net primary productivity was estimated from the average radial growth over five years measured from the segments cut from the boles and the terminal growth measured as the height increase of the tree. Allometric equations were used to find the height and radial increment as a function of crown height and diameter at breast height. Spruce used an additional parameter of stem density. The models were used to back project five years and determine biomass at that time. The change in biomass over that time was used to determine the productivity. Measurements of sacrificed trees were used to develop relationships between the biophysical parameters (biomass, leaf area index, bark area index and net primary productivity) and the measurements made at each site (diameter at breast height, tree height, crown depth and stem density). These relationships were then used to estimate biophysical characteristics for the aspen and spruce study sites that are provided in the Forest Biophysical Parameters (SNF) data set. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]SNF_BIOMASS ]

  • This data set documentation is currently in work. In the interim, an abstract of the entire Superior National Forest (SNF) data collection activity from which the SNF Vegetation Cover Data: C. Jarvis Data Set is a product is being provided. During the summers of 1983 and 1984, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted an intensive experiment in a portion of the Superior National Forest (SNF) near Ely, Minnesota, USA. The purpose of the experiment was to investigate the ability of remote sensing to provide estimates of biophysical properties of ecosystems, such as leaf area index (LAI), biomass and net primary productivity (NPP). The study area covered a 50 x 50 km area centered at approximately 48 degrees North latitude and 92 degrees West longitude in northeastern Minnesota at the southern edge of the North American boreal forest. The SNF is mostly covered by boreal forest. Boreal forests were chosen for this project because of their relative taxonomic simplicity, their great extent, and their potential sensitivity to climatic change. Satellite, aircraft, helicopter and ground observations were obtained for the study area. These data comprise a unique dataset for the investigation of the relationships between the radiometric and biophysical properties of vegetated canopies. This is perhaps the most complete dataset of its type ever collected over a forested region. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]SNF_CJ_VEG ]

  • This data set contains contains two ASCII files. One file, in comma-separated-values (.csv) format, provides above-ground net primary production (ANPP) and total NPP [expressed in grams of carbon per square meter per year (gC/m2/year)] and the C fraction used to convert dry biomass weight to carbon content for 127 unique study sites in northern Eurasia. The sites are classified by ecozone (i.e., tundra, forest-tundra, taiga, mixed forest, broadleaf forest, small-leaved secondary forests, forest bogs, meadows, steppe, semi-desert, and polar desert) and plant community (phytocoenosis). Each study location is georeferenced (latitude/longitude) with elevation and zonal/interzonal information. References to original author, year of publication, and table/record in Bazilevich (1993) are also included in the data file. The second ASCII file, in text (.txt) format, provides the bibliography of 274 original-source references (in Russian) to accompany the 127 data records on NPP from Bazilevich (1993). The data are a subset of data adapted from Bazilevich, N.I. 1993. Biological Productivity of Ecosystems of Northern Eurasia. Nauka Publishers, Moscow. 293 pp. (in Russian). The data set originated from field measurements of primary productivity collected between 1940 and 1988 for most of the terrestrial vegetation types in northern Eurasia. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]NPP_BAZ ]

  • The NPP Database contains documented field measurements of NPP for global terrestrial sites compiled from published literature and other extant data sources. The NPP Database contains biomass dynamics, climate, and site-characteristics data georeferenced to each intensive site. A major goal of the data compilation is to use consistent and standard well-documented methods to estimate NPP from the field data. Other important components of the database include a summary, investigator contact information, and a list of key references for each site. As far as possible, the original principal investigator or his/her successor has been contacted to review the data and documentation. The NPP Database currently contains detailed data for over 60 intensive study sites. A majority of these sites are grasslands, the remainder being tropical forests, boreal forests, and tundra study sites. Some combination of above-ground annual peak live biomass data and/or seasonal biomass dynamics data are available for all sites. Many sites also have data on below-ground biomass and/or turnover. Estimates of net primary productivity are included, where available, for individual sites, and as part of the NPP Summary tables. Climate and soils data are available for all sites in varying degrees of detail. The sites have been grouped according to vegetation maps based upon Bailey ecoregions, Holdridge Life-Zones, Matthews vegetation classes, and Olson World Ecosystem Complexes. Previously compiled multi-site data sets of georeferenced NPP estimates are also provided. NPP estimates are available from a number of different collections, containing more than 1700 sites but with less information available for each individual site as compared to the intensive sites. Records for these sites typically include an NPP value, latitude and longitude, original source of the data, and sometimes information on vegetation type, management, soils, and local climate. More information on the entire Net Primary Productivity Project can be found at the NPP home page, with links to further details on individual study sites or multi-site collections. Users are encouraged to browse these Web pages to find details of original studies, methodologies, and original research contacts. NPP data are available on-line from the ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. Data Citation: Cite the data sets using the following reference format: Author, P. A., and M. B. Author. Year. Data Set Title. Available on-line from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. For example: Williamson, P., and J. Pitman. 1999. NPP Grassland: Beacon Hill, U.K. 1972-1973. Available on-line from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]npp_grassland ]

  • The objective of this study was to quantify net primary productivity as a function of rainfall in mesic to wet montane rainforests in Maui, Hawaii. The Maui Moisture Gradient is a sequence of 6 sites located on the island of Maui that range from 2200 mm to 5050 mm mean annual rainfall, while temperature and all other state factors (parent material, substrate age, organisms, and topography) that control NPP remain relatively constant. This data set contains annual estimates of net primary productivity made in 1996 and 1997.The data provided are estimates of the accumulation of biomass by plants for a given year, or net primary productivity (NPP). Estimates are given for aboveground and belowground productivity, and the sum as net primary productivity. These data are part of a larger study that focused on the dynamics of carbon cycling and storage in everwet rainforest as a function of changes in rainfall regime. The Maui Moisture Gradient sites were located within a geographic distance of less then 5 km in the Makawao and Koolau Forest Reserves on the north flank of Haleakala volcano. Temperature regimes were similar at the constant altitude of the sites (approximately 1300 m) while mean annual precipitation ranged systematically from 2200 mm/yr (mesic) to over 5000 mm/yr (wet) as a function of aspect relative to the prevailing trade winds. The sites were located on lava flows from the Kula volcanic series (mean age 410,000 years), which was part of the shield-building phase of Haleakala volcano. The original shield surface has been dissected by stream channels, so the study sites were located on shield volcano remnant surfaces on broad, flat (< 5 % slope) interfluve areas to minimize variation in local topography. The soils on this precipitation gradient are classified as Inceptisols and Andisols developed from lava with surface ash deposits. The Hawaiian Islands flora and fauna are relatively species-poor, thus a few species and genera occupy a broad range of environmental conditions. As a result, the forest canopy at all sites was consistently dominated by the native evergreen tree Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae) which comprises 80% to 100% of basal area in these forests. The understory vegetation was dominated by a variety of ferns and other herbaceous species at all sites, but the dominance of particular understory species shifted among sites. This watershed area has never been cleared by humans and all six sites were located in mature forests stands. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]npp_schuur ]

  • This data set contains species composition, basal area, height, and crown cover of all woody plants at six sites along the Kalahari Transect visited in February-March of 2000 as part of SAFARI 2000. Similar measurements on woody and herbaceous vegetation at the Skukuza Flux Tower site in Kruger National Park, South Africa, were made in June of 2000. Leaf area index was derived from measurements made using PAR sensors at each site.Sampling protocol was the same at each site, with a slight variation at Skukuza. A grid of 42 points, 6 rows of 7 columns, each 50 m apart, was laid down in an area 300 m x 350 m for the Kalahari Transect sites. At Skukuza, the grid was 7x7, or 350 m x 350 m, centered on the tower site, yielding 49 points. At each grid point, all woody plants within a circular plot of a fixed radius were identified and measured. Stem circumference was measured on all stems and basal area per stem was derived. Basal area for the circular plots, per species, was calculated and extrapolated to hectares. Tree and stem densities were determined from the number of trees and stems in subplots and extrapolated to hectares. Woody plant height and canopy cover were determined, and aboveground woody biomass and peak leaf area index were estimated. The files are in comma-delimited ASCII format, with the first line listing the data set, author, and date, followed by the data records. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]s2k_kt_trees ]

  • The data set consists of a southern African subset of the "Global Soil Profile Data (ISRIC-WISE)" data set. Data files are provided in comma-delimited ASCII format. The International Soil Reference and Information Centre - World Inventory of Soil Emission Potentials (ISRIC-WISE) international soil profile data set consists of a homogenized, global set of 1,125 soil profiles for use by global modelers. These profiles provided the basis for the Global Pedon Database (GPDB) of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme - Data and Information System (IGBP-DIS). The data set consists of a selection of 665 profiles originating from the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS, Lincoln, Nebraska, U.S.A.), 250 profiles obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, Rome, Italy), and 210 profiles from the reference collection of the International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC, Wageningen, The Netherlands). All profiles are geor eferenced and classified according to the 1974 Legend of the FAO-UNESCO Soil Map of the World (FAO-UNESCO 1974), as well as the 1988 Revised Legend of FAO-UNESCO (FAO 1990). The data set includes information on soil classification, site data, soil horizon data, source of data, and methods used for determining analytical data. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]s2kisricwise_profile ]

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