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  • This directory contains volcanic SO2 data derived from limb viewing satellites for the lower stratosphere from 1990 to 2019. The usage of the data is described in Timmreck et al., (2018), datasets VolcDB1 and VolcDB1_3D. We provide 3D-plumes of observed volume mixing ratio perturbations in the lower stratosphere / upper troposphere typically derived from 10-day periods as nc-file and integrated values of injected SO2 mass with peak latitudes and altitudes as Fortran formatted ascii file (33X,A11,5X,6(I3,1X),I4,1X,5(I3,1X),6(I3,1X),I5,1X,4(I3,1X),I3) for at maximum 6 events at one time. Instead of A11 I2,A4,I5 can be used to read in the components of time. The data from Jan. 1990 to Jan. 2002 are based on L2-files of SAGE II (V7.0) provided by the NASA DAAC (Thomason et al., 2008). The data from Jul. 2002 to Mar. 2012 use the updated 5-day time series of MIPAS (Hoepfner et al., 2015), supplemented by SO2 derived from GOMOS extinctions (Bingen et al., 2017, with a corresponding table, scaled for lower resolution). After March 2012 based on OSIRIS (Rieger et al., 2019). volc_SO2-3D-vmr-perturbation-1990-2019.nc: 3D SO2 for 258 days with eruptions in T63L90 resolution (ECHAM-grid in grid-T63L90.nc). Latitude from South to North, for use with ECHAM please reverse. The levels on the hybrid-grid in the grid files are defined as lev(x,y,z)=hyam(z)+hybm(z)*apsave(x,y), in Pa (apsave annual average of surface pressure or orography), surface to 80km (update of VolcDB1_3D). This version contains the factors of Brühl et al. (2018) for MIPAS included in the ascii-file with the integrals and which were missing in Version 2 (SSIRC_2). volc-so2-inventory.ps: plot of zonal averages of SO2 perturbation at 3 altitudes (gaps not shown, widths of bars have no meaning). volc-SO2-mass.txt: integrated SO2 mass injected (in kt), SAGE, ENVISAT and OSIRIS period (update of VolcDB1). The volcano names are in the first column, see also http://www.volcano.si.edu (Smithsonian volcano database), Schallock et al. (2021) and SSIRC_1 (doi:10.1594/WDCC/SSIRC_1). AEROCOM-DIEHL-degassing-volc-SO2.nc: Fluxes from outgassing volcanoes in the troposphere (below 210hPa), taken from AEROCOM (Diehl et al., 2012). Caution, filled with odd climatology after 2009, monthly (subset beginning Jan. 1990). volc-globalforcing-tropo.nc: EMAC results for instanteneous global radiative radiative forcing by stratospheric aerosol near the tropopause (in W/m2), figure see Schallock et al. (2021)

  • preindustrial Control experiment to be used in VolMIP analyses. The piControl experiment is the CMIP6-DECK piControl experiment described in Eyring et al. (2016). piControl provides initial climate states that are sampled to start most of VolMIP experiments (Zanchettin et al., 2016). The dataset contains monthly values of selected variables spatially averaged over four regions. These are the full globe (GL), the Northern Hemisphere extratropics (30°-90°N, NH), the tropics (30°S-30°N, TR), and the Southern Hemisphere (30°-90°S, hereafter SH). The considered variables have the following cmor names: hfls, hfss, pr, rlds, rldscs, rlus, rlut, rlutcs, rsds, rsdscs, rsdt, rsus, rsut, rsutcs, tas. Additionally, the climate indices NAO and Nino34 are part of the dataset. Considered models are CanESM5, IPSL-CM6A-LR, GISS-E2.1-G, MIROC-ES2L, MPI-ESM1.2-LR (named MPI-ESM-LR in the files of this dataset) and UKESM1. Considered experiments are piControl and volc-pinatubo-full, with initial date and final date as specified for each model in Zanchettin et al. (2021). Different realizations are considered for the participating models depending on availability.

  • Idealized volcanic-forcing coupled climate model experiment using the 1991 Pinatubo forcing as used in the CMIP6 historical simulations. It is a Tier 1 (mandatory) VolMIP experiment based on a large ensemble of short-term “Pinatubo” climate simulations aimed at accurately estimating simulated responses to volcanic forcing that may be comparable to the amplitude of internal interannual climate variability. Initialization is based on equally distributed predefined states of ENSO (cold/neutral/warm states) and of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO, negative/neutral/positive states). Sampling of an eastern phase of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO), as observed after the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, is preferred for those models that spontaneously generate such mode of stratospheric variability. VIRF diagnostics must be calculated for this experiment for the whole integration and for all ensemble members, as these are required for the “volc-pinatubo-strat”/“surf” experiments. A minimum length of integration of 3 years is requested. Details about the experiment are provided by Zanchettin et al. (2016). The dataset contains monthly values of selected variables spatially averaged over four regions. These are the full globe (GL), the Northern Hemisphere extratropics (30°-90°N, NH), the tropics (30°S-30°N, TR), and the Southern Hemisphere (30°-90°S, hereafter SH). The considered variables have the following cmor names: hfls, hfss, pr, rlds, rldscs, rlus, rlut, rlutcs, rsds, rsdscs, rsdt, rsus, rsut, rsutcs, tas. Additionally, the climate indices NAO and Nino34 are part of the dataset. Considered models are CanESM5, IPSL-CM6A-LR, GISS-E2.1-G, MIROC-ES2L, MPI-ESM1.2-LR (named MPI-ESM-LR in the files of this dataset) and UKESM1. Considered experiments are piControl and volc-pinatubo-full, with initial date and final date as specified for each model in Zanchettin et al. (2021). Different realizations are considered for the participating models depending on availability.

  • These data include the subset used by IPCC AR6 WGI authors of the datasets originally published in ESGF for 'CMIP6.CMIP.AWI.AWI-ESM-1-1-LR' with the full Data Reference Syntax following the template 'mip_era.activity_id.institution_id.source_id.experiment_id.member_id.table_id.variable_id.grid_label.version'. The AWI-ESM 1.1 LR climate model, released in 2018, includes the following components: atmos: ECHAM6.3.04p1 (T63L47 native atmosphere T63 gaussian grid; 192 x 96 longitude/latitude; 47 levels; top level 80 km), land: JSBACH 3.20 with dynamic vegetation, ocean: FESOM 1.4 (unstructured grid in the horizontal with 126859 wet nodes; 46 levels; top grid cell 0-5 m), seaIce: FESOM 1.4. The model was run by the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany (AWI) in native nominal resolutions: atmos: 250 km, land: 250 km, ocean: 50 km, seaIce: 50 km. Individuals using the data must abide by terms of use for CMIP6 data (https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/CMIP6/TermsOfUse). The original license restrictions on these datasets were recorded as global attributes in the data files, but these may have been subsequently updated.

  • While climate information from General Circulation Models (GCMs) are usually too coarse for climate impact modelers or decision makers from various disciplines (e.g., hydrology, agriculture), Regional Climate Models (RCMs) and Regional Earth System Models (RESMs) provide feasible solutions for downscaling GCM output to finer spatiotemporal scales. However, it is well known that the model performance depends largely on the choice of the physical parameterization schemes, but optimal configurations may vary from region to region. Besides land-surface processes, the most crucial processes to be parameterized in ESMs include radiation (RA), cumulus convection (CU), cloud microphysics (MP), and planetary boundary layer (PBL), partly with complex interactions. Before conducting long-term climate simulations, it is therefore indispensable to identify a suitable combination of physics parameterization schemes for these processes. Using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis product ERA-Interim as lateral boundary conditions, we derived an ensemble of 16 physics parameterization runs for a larger domain in Northern sub-Saharan Africa (NSSA), northwards of the equator, using two different CU-, MP-, PBL-, and RA schemes, respectively, using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (Version v3.9) for the period 2006-2010 in a resolution of 0.1 degree horizontal resolution. Conclusions about suitable physical parameterization schemes may vary within the study area. We therefore want to stimulate the development of own performance evaluation studies for climate simulations or subsequent impact studies over specific (sub-)regions in NSSA. For this reason, selected climate surface variables of the physics ensemble (i.e. the 16 experiments from 2006-2010) are provided. For more information about the setup of the experiments, please see: Laux et al., 2021: A high-resolution regional climate model physics ensemble for Northern sub-Saharan Africa. Frontiers in Earth Science (under revision).

  • While climate information from General Circulation Models (GCMs) are usually too coarse for climate impact modelers or decision makers from various disciplines (e.g., hydrology, agriculture), Regional Climate Models (RCMs) and Regional Earth System Models (RESMs) provide feasible solutions for downscaling GCM output to finer spatiotemporal scales. However, it is well known that the model performance depends largely on the choice of the physical parameterization schemes, but optimal configurations may vary from region to region. Besides land-surface processes, the most crucial processes to be parameterized in ESMs include radiation (RA), cumulus convection (CU), cloud microphysics (MP), and planetary boundary layer (PBL), partly with complex interactions. Before conducting long-term climate simulations, it is therefore indispensable to identify a suitable combination of physics parameterization schemes for these processes. Using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis product ERA-Interim as lateral boundary conditions, we derived an ensemble of 16 physics parameterization runs for a larger domain in Northern sub-Saharan Africa (NSSA), northwards of the equator, using two different CU-, MP-, PBL-, and RA schemes, respectively, using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (Version v3.9) for the period 2006-2010 in a resolution of 0.1 degree horizontal resolution. Conclusions about suitable physical parameterization schemes may vary within the study area. We therefore want to stimulate the development of own performance evaluation studies for climate simulations or subsequent impact studies over specific (sub-)regions in NSSA. For this reason, selected climate surface variables of the physics ensemble (i.e. the 16 experiments from 2006-2010) are provided. For more information about the setup of the experiments, please see: Laux et al., 2021: A high-resolution regional climate model physics ensemble for Northern sub-Saharan Africa. Frontiers in Earth Science (under revision).

  • While climate information from General Circulation Models (GCMs) are usually too coarse for climate impact modelers or decision makers from various disciplines (e.g., hydrology, agriculture), Regional Climate Models (RCMs) and Regional Earth System Models (RESMs) provide feasible solutions for downscaling GCM output to finer spatiotemporal scales. However, it is well known that the model performance depends largely on the choice of the physical parameterization schemes, but optimal configurations may vary from region to region. Besides land-surface processes, the most crucial processes to be parameterized in ESMs include radiation (RA), cumulus convection (CU), cloud microphysics (MP), and planetary boundary layer (PBL), partly with complex interactions. Before conducting long-term climate simulations, it is therefore indispensable to identify a suitable combination of physics parameterization schemes for these processes. Using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis product ERA-Interim as lateral boundary conditions, we derived an ensemble of 16 physics parameterization runs for a larger domain in Northern sub-Saharan Africa (NSSA), northwards of the equator, using two different CU-, MP-, PBL-, and RA schemes, respectively, using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (Version v3.9) for the period 2006-2010 in a resolution of 0.1 degree horizontal resolution. Conclusions about suitable physical parameterization schemes may vary within the study area. We therefore want to stimulate the development of own performance evaluation studies for climate simulations or subsequent impact studies over specific (sub-)regions in NSSA. For this reason, selected climate surface variables of the physics ensemble (i.e. the 16 experiments from 2006-2010) are provided. For more information about the setup of the experiments, please see: Laux et al., 2021: A high-resolution regional climate model physics ensemble for Northern sub-Saharan Africa. Frontiers in Earth Science (under revision).

  • Data output from the Precipitation Driver Response Model Intercomparison Project (PDRMIP). A set of 6 core experiments (a base, co2x2, ch4x3, solar, bcx10, sulx5 where the solar experiment has increased incoming solar radiation), 5 regional experiments (bcx10asia, sulx10asia, sulx10eur, sulred, sulasiared) and 7 phase 2 experiments (base2, cfc12, cfc11, n2o1p, ozone, lndus, bcslt) have been run by one or more of the participating models; CanESM2, MPI-ESM, NorESM1, NCAR-CESM1-CAM4, NCAR-CESM1-CAM5, MIROC-SPRINTARS, HadGEM2, HadGEM3, GISS-E2-R, IPSL-CM5A, ECHAM-HAM. Each of the experiments has been run (for the most part) both in coupled and fixed sst ocean setups. Time designations varry from model to model, however, all models have ran the coupled ocean experiments for 100 years and 15 years in the fixed sst experiments. Outputs varry between models, but include 2D and 3D monthly variables, 2D daily variables and fixed 2D fields.

  • While climate information from General Circulation Models (GCMs) are usually too coarse for climate impact modelers or decision makers from various disciplines (e.g., hydrology, agriculture), Regional Climate Models (RCMs) and Regional Earth System Models (RESMs) provide feasible solutions for downscaling GCM output to finer spatiotemporal scales. However, it is well known that the model performance depends largely on the choice of the physical parameterization schemes, but optimal configurations may vary from region to region. Besides land-surface processes, the most crucial processes to be parameterized in ESMs include radiation (RA), cumulus convection (CU), cloud microphysics (MP), and planetary boundary layer (PBL), partly with complex interactions. Before conducting long-term climate simulations, it is therefore indispensable to identify a suitable combination of physics parameterization schemes for these processes. Using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis product ERA-Interim as lateral boundary conditions, we derived an ensemble of 16 physics parameterization runs for a larger domain in Northern sub-Saharan Africa (NSSA), northwards of the equator, using two different CU-, MP-, PBL-, and RA schemes, respectively, using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (Version v3.9) for the period 2006-2010 in a resolution of 0.1 degree horizontal resolution. Conclusions about suitable physical parameterization schemes may vary within the study area. We therefore want to stimulate the development of own performance evaluation studies for climate simulations or subsequent impact studies over specific (sub-)regions in NSSA. For this reason, selected climate surface variables of the physics ensemble (i.e. the 16 experiments from 2006-2010) are provided. For more information about the setup of the experiments, please see: Laux et al., 2021: A high-resolution regional climate model physics ensemble for Northern sub-Saharan Africa. Frontiers in Earth Science (under revision).

  • While climate information from General Circulation Models (GCMs) are usually too coarse for climate impact modelers or decision makers from various disciplines (e.g., hydrology, agriculture), Regional Climate Models (RCMs) and Regional Earth System Models (RESMs) provide feasible solutions for downscaling GCM output to finer spatiotemporal scales. However, it is well known that the model performance depends largely on the choice of the physical parameterization schemes, but optimal configurations may vary from region to region. Besides land-surface processes, the most crucial processes to be parameterized in ESMs include radiation (RA), cumulus convection (CU), cloud microphysics (MP), and planetary boundary layer (PBL), partly with complex interactions. Before conducting long-term climate simulations, it is therefore indispensable to identify a suitable combination of physics parameterization schemes for these processes. Using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis product ERA-Interim as lateral boundary conditions, we derived an ensemble of 16 physics parameterization runs for a larger domain in Northern sub-Saharan Africa (NSSA), northwards of the equator, using two different CU-, MP-, PBL-, and RA schemes, respectively, using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (Version v3.9) for the period 2006-2010 in a resolution of 0.1 degree horizontal resolution. Conclusions about suitable physical parameterization schemes may vary within the study area. We therefore want to stimulate the development of own performance evaluation studies for climate simulations or subsequent impact studies over specific (sub-)regions in NSSA. For this reason, selected climate surface variables of the physics ensemble (i.e. the 16 experiments from 2006-2010) are provided. For more information about the setup of the experiments, please see: Laux et al., 2021: A high-resolution regional climate model physics ensemble for Northern sub-Saharan Africa. Frontiers in Earth Science (under revision).

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