The WOCE/ARGO Global Hydrographic Climatology (WAGHC) is concieved as the update of the previous WOCE Global Hydrographic Climatology (WGHC) (Gouretski and Koltermann, 2004). The following improvements have been made compared to the WGHC: 2) finer spatial resolution (0.25 degrees Lat/Lon compared to 0.5 degrees for WGHC); 3) finer vertical resolution (65 compared to 45 WGHC standard levels); 4) monthly temporal resolution compared to the all-data-mean WGHC parameters; 5) narrower overall time period; 6) calculation of the mean year corresponding to the optimally interpolated temperature and salinity values; 7) depth of the upper mixed layer. Similar to the WGHC the optimal spatial interpolation is performed on the local isopycnal surfaces. This approach diminishes the production of the artificial water masses. In addition to the isopycnally interpolated parameters parameter values interpolated on the isobaric levels are also provided. The monthly gridded vertical profiles extend to the depth of 1898 m, below only annual mean parameter values are available. Additionally, there is a dataset and a map available providing indexes for selected regions of the world ocean. Finally, the comparison with the last update of the NOAA World Ocean Atlas (Locarnini et al, 2013) was done.
The research aircraft DO-128, call sign D-IBUF, of the IFF (TU Braunschweig) measures numerous meteorological and chemical variables to get a better understanding of the atmospheric processes which cause the development of precipitation. The aircraft starts from the Baden Airpark and flys among different flight pattern which are described in the flight protocols. The meteorological variables are static pressure and dynamic pressure at the nose boom, surface temperature, humidity mixing ratio by a lyman-alpha sensor, dewpoint temperature by a dewpoint-mirror, relative humidity by an aerodata-humicap, air temperature by a PT-100 sensor, vertical and horizontal wind components by a five-hole probe and GPS, turbulence (100 Hz), shortwave (pyranometer) and longwave (pyrgeometer) radiance in upper und lower half space. The chemical variables are mole fractions of ozone, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen monoxide and nitric oxides (NOx). There are also a few variables for the position and the velocity of the aircraft stored in the data file. Additionally to the measurements by the aircraft, up to 30 drop-sondes can be dropped out of the aircraft. By using these sondes, vertical profiles of temperature, pressure, humidity and wind can be detected (see also the meta data describing the drop-sonde data). Special events are also marked in the data files by the event counter (e.g. dropping times of the drop-sondes, marks concerning the flight patterns etc.). The specific action or flight manoeuvre indicated by the event_number can be identified in the flight protocol.
Surface layer scintillometer data derived from a Optical Energy Balance Measurement System OEBMS1 with a Scintillometer SLS20 system by Scintec AG at station UV1EG (Deckenpfronn). The system operated at a measurement height of 1.75 m and with a path length of 117 m over the target land use type meadow.
The two energy balance station run by Meteo-France/CNRM measured high-frequency (20 Hz) eddy-covariance raw data with a Solent-HS (Gill Instruments Ltd.) sonic anemometer and a LI-7500 (LI-COR Biosciences) hygrometer above the target land use type corn. The measuring set-up was continuously running during July 2007 in order to provide turbulent flux data of momentum, sensible and latent heat as well as carbon dioxide. Post-processing was performed using the software package TK2 (developed by the Department of Micrometeorology, University of Bayreuth) which produces quality assured turbulent flux data with an averaging interval of 30 min. The documentation and instruction manual of TK2 (see entry cops_nebt_ubt_info_1) and additional references about the applied flux corrections and post-field data quality control (see entry cops_nebt_ubt_info_2) as well as a document about the general handling of the flux data can be found in supplementary pdf-files within the energy balance and turbulence network (NEBT) experiment of the data base. The turbulent flux data in this data set are flagged according to their quality and checked for an impact of possible internal boundary layers. Additionally, the flux contribution from the target land use type intended to be observed to the total flux measured was calculated applying footprint modeling. Information and references about the internal boundary layer evaluation procedure and the footprint analysis are also given in additional info pdf-files. Pictures of the footprint climatology of the station as related to the land use and to the spatial distribution of the quality flags are included in the additional info pdf-file corresponding to the individual station.
The period of permanent measurement was : 1st July - 31 July 2007 The measured parameters are : Air pressure, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, position. The operation was effective during IOP, up to 6 soundings a day. Near the village of Meistratzheim, 20 km south_westward of Strasbourg. The platform on the site of Niederrott is installed just between 2 types of vegetation : Maize on the west and short grass on the east part.
The field experiments ALKOR 2000 (consisting of three cruises: ALKOR 4/2000, 6/2000, 10/2000) and ALKOR 2001 (4/2001, 6/2001, 10/2001) took place in the central Baltic Sea. The six cruises of the German Research Vessel Alkor with duration of about seven days each led to a point of the Baltic Sea which is most remote from the adjacent lands and additionally a grid point of regional climate model REMO. The ALKOR experiments as well as BASIS 1998 and BASIS 2001 are part of the research compound BALTIMOS (BALTic sea Integrated MOdel System). BALTIMOS in turn is part of the Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX). The overall objective of all eight field experiments (ALKOR and BASIS) was to collect a comprehensive data set suited to validate the coupled model system BALTIMOS for the Baltic Sea region. The observations mainly focus on: - the atmospheric boundary layer structure and processes and the air-sea-ice interaction over areas with inhomogeneous sea ice cover - the atmospheric boundary layer structure over open water under different synoptic conditions such as cold-air advection, warm-air advection or frontal passages. In addition to the published datasets several other measurements were performed during the experiment. Corresonding datasets will be published in the near future and are available on request. Details about all used platforms and sensors and all performed measurements are listed in the fieldreport. The following datasets are available on request: ground data at RV Alkor
The geographical distribution of the EARLINET stations is particularly suitable for dust observation, with stations located all around the Mediterranean (from the Iberian Peninsula in the West to the Greece and Bulgaria and Romania in the East) and in the center of the Mediterranean (Italian stations) where dust intrusions are frequent, and with several stations in the central Europe where dust penetrates occasionally. A suitable observing methodology has been established within the network, based on Saharan dust alerts distributed to all EARLINET stations. The dust alert is based on the operational outputs (aerosol dust load) of the DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model), and the Skiron models. The alerts are diffused 24 to 36 hours prior to the arrival of dust aerosols over the EARLINET sites. Runs of measurements longer than 3-hour observations, typical for the EARLINET climatological measurements are performed at the EARLINET stations in order to investigate the temporal evolution of the dust events. All aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles related to observations of Saharan dust layers are collected in the "Saharan dust" category of the EARLINET database.
The Soundings were usually performed during the daytime of IOPs at two fixed locations. Scheduled launching times were at 05, 08, 11, 14, 17 and 20 UTC. Radiosounding at Burnhaupt le Bas, France: Sondes of the type DFM-06 manufactured by the Company GRAW (http://graw.de) have been used. Radiosounding at FZK, Karlsruhe, Germany Sondes of the type DFM-97 manufactured by GRAW (http://graw.de) have been used. From 26 July at 5:02 DFM-06 sondes of the same company have been used. On 25 July at 11:08 there was a test run of a DFM-06 sonde.
The positions of the meteorological towers (IMKMT1 to IMKMT4) are identical with the positions of the launching sites of the drop-up-sondes (IMKRS1 to IMKRS5). There have been no more than 4 teams operating on each IOP. For detailed information about the sites (including a map) and operating days see supplement pdf-file (cops_rsdu_imk_info_1). The parameters are: air_pressure: measured at about 1.8 m GND by a barometric pressure sensor that has a gill pressure port, 60s mean. air_temperature_at_1.8m: measured at about 1.8 m GND by a HYGROMER meteorology probe MP 400a, 60s mean. relative_humidity_at_1.8m: measured at about 1.8 m GND by a HYGROMER meteorology probe MP 400a, 60s mean. precipitation_amount: measured by a tipping bucket rain gauge (catchment area: 200 cm**2), 60s accumulated. wind_speed_at_4.5m, wind_from_direction_at_4.5m, virtual_temperature_at_4.5m: measured at about 4.5 m by a Young 3-D Sonic Anemometer, 60s mean.
The geographical distribution of the EARLINET stations is particularlysuitable for dust observation, with stations located all around the Mediterranean(from the Iberian Peninsula in the West to the Greece and Bulgaria and Romania in the East) and in the center of the Mediterranean (Italian stations) where dust intrusions are frequent, and with several stations in the central Europe where dust penetrates occasionally. A suitable observing methodology has been established within the network, based on Saharan dust alerts distributed to all EARLINET stations. The dust alert is based on the operational outputs (aerosol dust load) of the SDS-WAS (Sand and Dust Storm- Warning and Advisory System of WMO), and the Skiron models. The alerts are diffused 24 to 36 hours prior to the arrival of dust aerosols over the EARLINET sites. Runs of measurements longer than 3-hour observations, typical for the EARLINET climatological measurements are performed at the EARLINET stations in order to investigate the temporal evolution of the dust events. All aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles related to observations of Saharan dust layers are collected in the "Saharan dust" category of the EARLINET database.
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