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  • In order to exploit mineral raw materials close to the Earth's surface, experts are working on trans-regional and national planning documents. To do this, they need maps which clearly depict the raw materials close to the surface in Germany. KOR200 displays Germany's national raw material potential in a comparable way, thus forming a basis for future exploration and investigations as well as making a contribution towards the assurance of the supply of raw materials. The map follows the sheet line system of the topographical survey map 1:200.000 (TÜK 200) and consists of 55 sheets, each with an explanatory booklet. There is a review of the current situation, a description, a depiction and documentation of the occurrence and deposits of mineral raw materials which are usually extracted in mines either on or close to the Earth's surface. Such deposits include, in particular, industrial minerals, rocks and soils, peat, lignite, oil shale and brines. Besides the delimited deposits and areas of raw materials coloured according to the raw material in question, the maps also depict "mining areas" (=operations) or "focal points of several mining areas", each marked with a symbol. The map entries are - just as with the topographical basis - recorded in digitalised form in a databank, from which they can be retrieved via a computer using various search criteria. The entries in the map are supplemented by between 40 to 80 pages of textual explanations, which are currently available only in the printed edition of the map. The text is divided into: - introduction - description of the deposits and occurrence of useful rocks - supply and demand assessment of the deposits and occurrence of raw materials close to the Earth's surface in the area covered by the sheet - possible ways of using the useful rocks present in the sheet area - list of publications - appendix (with, amongst other things, a general legend and survey of sheets)

  • The experiment includes the latest CMIP5 data of CSIRO for January 2015. The data is a newer version of the IPCC DDC AR5 data of CSIRO. piControl is an experiment of the CMIP5 - Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 ( https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5 ). CMIP5 is meant to provide a framework for coordinated climate change experiments for the next five years and thus includes simulations for assessment in the AR5 as well as others that extend beyond the AR5. 3.1 piControl (3.1 Pre-Industrial Control) - Version 1: Pre-Industrial coupled atmosphere/ocean control run. Imposes non-evolving pre-industrial conditions. Experiment design: https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/experiment_design.html List of output variables: https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/datadescription.html Output: time series per variable in model grid spatial resolution in netCDF format Earth System model and the simulation information: CIM repository Entry name/title of data are specified according to the Data Reference Syntax ( https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/docs/cmip5_data_reference_syntax.pdf ) as activity/product/institute/model/experiment/frequency/modeling realm/MIP table/ensemble member/version number/variable name/CMOR filename.nc .

  • This dataset contains ice core-based estimates of volcanic stratospheric sulfur injections covering the years 500 BCE to 1900 CE. Ice core-derived volcanic sulfate deposition composites for Antarctica (Sigl et al., 2014) and Greenland (Sigl et al., 2015) are scaled to volcanic stratospheric sulfur injection based on a method similar to that of Gao et al., (2007). Sigl, M., Winstrup, M., McConnell, J. R., Welten, K. C., Plunkett, G., Ludlow, F., Büntgen, U., Caffee, M., Chellman, N., Dahl-Jensen, D., Fischer, H., Kipfstuhl, S., Kostick, C., Maselli, O. J., Mekhaldi, F., Mulvaney, R., Muscheler, R., Pasteris, D. R., Pilcher, J. R., Salzer, M., Schüpbach, S., Steffensen, J. P., Vinther, B. M. and Woodruff, T. E.: Timing and climate forcing of volcanic eruptions for the past 2,500 years, Nature, 523, 543-549, doi:10.1038/nature14565, 2015. Sigl, M., McConnell, J. R., Toohey, M., Curran, M., Das, S. B., Edwards, R., Isaksson, E., Kawamura, K., Kipfstuhl, S., Krüger, K., Layman, L., Maselli, O. J., Motizuki, Y., Motoyama, H., Pasteris, D. R. and Severi, M.: Insights from Antarctica on volcanic forcing during the Common Era, Nat. Clim. Chang., 4, 693-697, doi:10.1038/nclimate2293, 2014. Gao, C., Oman, L., Robock, A. and Stenchikov, G. L.: Atmospheric volcanic loading derived from bipolar ice cores: Accounting for the spatial distribution of volcanic deposition, J. Geophys. Res., 112(D9), doi:10.1029/2006JD007461, 2007.

  • The eVolv2k database includes estimates of the magnitudes and approximate source latitudes of major volcanic stratospheric sulphur injection (VSSI) events from 500 BCE to 1900 CE. The VSSI estimates incorporate recent improvements to the ice core records in terms of synchronization and dating, refinements to the methods used to estimate VSSI from ice core records, and includes first estimates of the random uncertainties in VSSI values. Ice core-derived volcanic sulfate deposition composites for Antarctica (Sigl et al., 2014) and Greenland (Sigl et al., 2015, Zielinski et al., 1995) are scaled to volcanic stratospheric sulfur injection based on a method similar to that of Gao et al. (2007). More details to be published in a forthcoming article (Toohey and Sigl, in prep). Compared to version 1, this version (1) contains estimates of the random error in the VSSI estimates, (2) includes a clarification regarding the format of years in the BCE period by including both years BCE/CE and according to the ISO 8601 standard (which includes a year 0), and (3) includes some minor modifications to the VSSI values. In addition, a reconstruction of stratospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD) using the VSSI estimates and the EVA v1 volcanic forcing generator (Toohey et al., 2016) is provided. Complete optical properties (extinction, single scattering albedo, scattering asymmetry factor) as a function of height, latitude and time can be produced using the eVolv2k VSSI database and the EVA forcing generator. Gao, C., Oman, L., Robock, A. and Stenchikov, G. L.: Atmospheric volcanic loading derived from bipolar ice cores: Accounting for the spatial distribution of volcanic deposition, J. Geophys. Res., 112(D9), doi:10.1029/2006JD007461, 2007. Sigl, M., Winstrup, M., McConnell, J. R., Welten, K. C., Plunkett, G., Ludlow, F., Büntgen, U., Caffee, M., Chellman, N., Dahl-Jensen, D., Fischer, H., Kipfstuhl, S., Kostick, C., Maselli, O. J., Mekhaldi, F., Mulvaney, R., Muscheler, R., Pasteris, D. R., Pilcher, J. R., Salzer, M., Schüpbach, S., Steffensen, J. P., Vinther, B. M. and Woodruff, T. E.: Timing and climate forcing of volcanic eruptions for the past 2,500 years, Nature, 523, 543¿549, doi:10.1038/nature14565, 2015. Sigl, M., McConnell, J. R., Toohey, M., Curran, M., Das, S. B., Edwards, R., Isaksson, E., Kawamura, K., Kipfstuhl, S., Krüger, K., Layman, L., Maselli, O. J., Motizuki, Y., Motoyama, H., Pasteris, D. R. and Severi, M.: Insights from Antarctica on volcanic forcing during the Common Era, Nat. Clim. Chang., 4, 693-697, doi:10.1038/nclimate2293, 2014. Toohey, M. and Sigl, M.: Volcanic stratospheric sulphur injections and aerosol optical depth from 500 BCE to 1900 CE, in preparation. Toohey, M., Stevens, B., Schmidt, H. and Timmreck, C.: Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA v1.0): an idealized forcing generator for climate simulations, Geosci. Model Dev., 9(11), 4049–4070, doi:10.5194/GMD-9-4049-2016, 2016. Zielinski, G. A.: Stratospheric loading and optical depth estimates of explosive volcanism over the last 2100 years derived from the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice core, J. Geophys. Res., 100(D10), 20937–20955, doi:10.1029/95JD01751, 1995.

  • The data represent annual values of the glacier mass balance measured with the direct glaciological method. The mass balance is calculated from ablation of ice measured at about 50 stakes and accumulation of snow measured in about 9 pits for the mass balance year from 1 October to 30 September of the following year. The data comprises the glacier area, the net mass balance for the total glacier area as well as specified for the ablation and accumulation area, the altitude of the equilibrium line (ELA) and the specific mass balance.

  • The data represent annual values of the glacier mass balance measured with the direct glaciological method. The mass balance is calculated from ablation of ice and accumulation of snow measured at about 10 to 20 stakes for the mass balance year from 1 October to 30 September of the following year. The data comprises the glacier area, the net mass balance for the total glacier area as well as specified for the ablation and accumulation area, the altitude of the equilibrium line (ELA) and the specific mass balance.

  • The data represent annual values of the glacier mass balance measured with the direct glaciological method. The mass balance is calculated from ablation of ice measured at about 20 stakes and accumulation of snow measured in about 6 pits for the mass balance year from 1 October to 30 September of the following year. The data comprises the glacier area, the net mass balance for the total glacier area as well as specified for the ablation and accumulation area, the altitude of the equilibrium line (ELA) and the specific mass balance.

  • The annual glacier mass balance of Hallstaetter Glacier in Dachstein area is measured since 1.10.2006 with the direct glaciological method in the fixed date system (1.10. to 30. 09. of the following year). The accumulation of snow is measured by determination of the water equivalent in 6 snow pits, the ice ablation is measured with 15 stakes drilled into the ice. Results are the annual net mass balance in kg, the total accumulation and ablation, the glacier area and the portions of the area which are subject to ablation and accumulation, the elevation of the equilibrium line and the specific mass balance in kg/m2 (= mm w.e.). The accumulation during the winter is determined by the 1 May. The project homepage is located at http://imgi.uibk.ac.at . The project is funded by the Amt der Oberoesterreichischen Landesregierung and the Energie AG. The measurements are carried out by the Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics of the University of Innsbruck and the company Blue Sky in Gmunden, Austria.

  • The annual glacier mass balance of Mullwitzkees in Hohe Tauern is measured since 1.10.2006 with the direct glaciological method in the fixed date system (1.10. to 30. 09. of the following year). The accumulation of snow is measured by determination of the water equivalent in 6 snow pits, the ice ablation is measured with 15 stakes drilled into the ice. Results are the annual net mass balance in kg, the total accumulation and ablation, the glacier area and the portions of the area which are subject to ablation and accumulation, the elevation of the equilibrium line and the specific mass balance in kg/m? (= mm w.e.). The accumulation during the winter is determined by the 1 May. The project homepage is located at http://imgi.uibk.ac.at . The project is funded by the Hydrographischer Dienst der Abteilung Wasserwirtschaft des Amtes der Tiroler Landesregierung and National Park Hohe Tauern. The measurements are carried out by the Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics of the University of Innsbruck.

  • LARSIM (LARSIM=LArge Area Runoff Simulation Model BW= Baden-Wuerttemberg) is described in "Freiburger Schriften zur Hydrologie", Band 22. 2006 (Ludwig, K.; Bremicker, M.: The water Balance Model LARSIM) The calculated results from LARSIM for the gauges Murg at Rotenfels and Kinzig at Schwaibach were handed over. The results are calcultaed in operational mode of the flood forecasting centre Karlsruhe (HVZ). The forecasts were corrected with ARIMA (0,1,0), i.e. the forecasted discharges were shifted with a constant amount, so, that the first forecast value attaches directly to the last measured value. During low water periods, the forecast is adapted to the average value of the last 24 h of the measured values. The forecasts were calculated for 72 hours. The runs driven by the DWD forecast LMK takes the LMK (new name: COSMO-DE) for the first 21 hours and then the LME-forecast. The runs called LME take only the LME (new name: COSMO-EU) forecast into accuont. For the period up to the forecast time measured values were used. The model uses precipitation, temperature, wind velocity, dew point or rel. humidity and the solar radiation. The measurement network uses the stations of the German Weatherservice DWD, the stations of the federal state Baden-Wuerttemberg (called "LUBW Luft" and "LUBW Ombro") and stations of third parties. The measurement network is very dense, but the equipement of the different stations may be dissimilar. You can see the network of the precipitation stations at http://www.hvz.baden-wuerttemberg.de/ -> Niederschlag -> Stationskarte. The forecasts were performed by the Flood Forecasting Centre Karlsruhe (HVZ) with its operational model "Oberrheinzf" (for Oberrheinzufluesse = tributaries of the river Rhine). The HVZ is part of the "Landesanstalt fuer Umwelt, Messungen und Naturschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg" (LUBW)". The model covers the region: 7°42' / 48°04' und 8°33' / 49°02'

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