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  • The Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) on Board ESA’s ENVISAT provides spectral high resolution image data in the visible-near infrared spectral region (412-900 nm) at a spatial resolution of 300 m. For more details on ENVISAT and MERIS see http://envisat.esa.int/ Spectral high resolution measurements allow to assess different water constituents in optically complex case-2 waters (IOCCG, 2000). The main groups of constituents are Chlorophyll, corresponding to living phytoplankton, suspended minerals or sediments and dissolved organic matter. They are characterised by their specific inherent optical properties, in particular scattering and absorption spectra. The Baltic Sea Water Constituents product was developed in a co-operative effort of DLR (Remote Sensing Technology Institute IMF, German Remote Sensing Data Centre DFD), Brockmann Consult (BC) and Baltic Sea Research Institute (IOW) in the frame of the MAPP project (MERIS Application and Regional Products Projects). The data are processed on a regular (daily) basis using ESA standard Level-1 and -2 data as input and producing regional specific value added Level-3 products. The regular data reception is realised at DFD ground station in Neustrelitz. For more details the reader is referred to http://eoweb.dlr.de/short_guide/Waterparameter_BalticSea.html and http://www.brockmann-consult.de/mapp/project_information.htm This product provides 10-day maps.

  • SWACI is a research project of DLR supported by the State Government of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Radio signals, transmitted by modern communication and navigation systems may be heavily disturbed by space weather hazards. Thus, severe temporal and spatial changes of the electron density in the ionosphere may significantly degrade the signal quality of various radio systems which even may lead to a complete loss of the signal. By providing specific space weather information, in particular now- and forecast of the ionospheric state, the accuracy and reliability of impacted communication and navigation systems shall be improved. The total electron content (TEC) is defined as the integral of the electron density along the ray path between satellite and receiver. Thus, TEC provides the number of electrons per square meter. The most frequently used unit is 1TECU = 1x1016 electrons / m2. TEC is derived from dual frequency code and carrier phase measurements provided by Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). SWACI uses GPS measurements from various European GNSS networks such as the International GNSS Service (IGS), European Reference Frame (EUREF), Norwegian Mapping Authority (NMA), and ascos distributed by the Federal Agency of Cartography and Geodesy (BKG) Frankfurt. The global TEC maps are mainly created by using data provided by the International GNSS Service Real-Time Pilot Project (IGS-RTPP). To generate TEC maps of vertical TEC, the slant measurements have to be transformed to the vertical. In a first approximation the ionospheric range error in GNSS is proportional to TEC. These TEC maps are used to derive latitudinal and zonal gradients, rate of change of TEC (5 min increments), 27 days medians, hourly forecasts of TEC, and corresponding error estimates. Spatial resolution (latitude x longitude): 2 °x 2° (Europe), 2.5° x 5° (globally)

  • Indian Remote Sensing satellites (IRS) are a series of Earth Observation satellites, built, launched and maintained by Indian Space Research Organisation. The IRS series provides many remote sensing services to India and international ground stations. The revisit capability of only 5 days and the products coverage size of 370 km x 370 km make AWiFS products a valuable source for application fields such forestry and environmental monitoring

  • Indian Remote Sensing satellites (IRS) are a series of Earth Observation satellites, built, launched and maintained by Indian Space Research Organisation. The IRS series provides many remote sensing services to India and international ground stations. IRS LISS-III data are well suited for agricultural and forestry monitoring tasks.

  • SWACI is a research project of DLR supported by the State Government of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Radio signals, transmitted by modern communication and navigation systems may be heavily disturbed by space weather hazards. Thus, severe temporal and spatial changes of the electron density in the ionosphere may significantly degrade the signal quality of various radio systems which even may lead to a complete loss of the signal. By providing specific space weather information, in particular now- and forecast of the ionospheric state, the accuracy and reliability of impacted communication and navigation systems shall be improved. The total electron content (TEC) is defined as the integral of the electron density along the ray path between satellite and receiver. Thus, TEC provides the number of electrons per square meter. The most frequently used unit is 1TECU = 1x1016 electrons / m2. TEC is derived from dual frequency code and carrier phase measurements provided by Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). SWACI uses GPS measurements from various European GNSS networks such as the International GNSS Service (IGS), European Reference Frame (EUREF), Norwegian Mapping Authority (NMA), and ascos distributed by the Federal Agency of Cartography and Geodesy (BKG) Frankfurt. The global TEC maps are mainly created by using data provided by the International GNSS Service Real-Time Pilot Project (IGS-RTPP). To generate TEC maps of vertical TEC, the slant measurements have to be transformed to the vertical. In a first approximation the ionospheric range error in GNSS is proportional to TEC. These TEC maps are used to derive latitudinal and zonal gradients, rate of change of TEC (5 min increments), 27 days medians, hourly forecasts of TEC, and corresponding error estimates. Spatial resolution (latitude x longitude): 2 °x 2° (Europe), 2.5° x 5° (globally)

  • Indian Remote Sensing satellites (IRS) are a series of Earth Observation satellites, built, launched and maintained by Indian Space Research Organisation. The IRS series provides many remote sensing services to India and international ground stations. \\n\\nIRS LISS-III data are well suited for agricultural and forestry monitoring tasks. Because of their simultaneous acquisition with IRS PAN data and the availability of a synthetic blue band, LISS-III data are ideal for colouring IRS PAN products.

  • This product shows Snow Cover Duration Early Season (SCDES). SCDES represents the SCD between September 1st and January 15th of a given hydrological year. Information about extent, beginning, duration and melt of snow cover are important for climate research, hydrological applications, flood prediction and weather forecast. Climate change is influencing the characteristics and duration of snow cover, affecting landscape, hydrology, flora, fauna, and humans in equal measure. Therefore, precise information about the different snow parameters and their development over time are particularly important for various research fields. The “Global SnowPack” is a dataset containing information about snow cover parameters on a global scale. Overall, early season, and late season snow cover duration are included and allow detailed insights in the characteristics of this most relevant part of Earth’s cryosphere. The parameters are being derived from daily, operational MODIS snow cover products for every year since 2000. The negative effects of polar darkness and cloud coverage are compensated by applying several processing steps. Thereby, a unique global dataset can be provided that is characterized by its high accuracy, a spatial resolution of 500 meter and continuous future enhancements. For more information please also refer to: Dietz, A. J., C. Kuenzer, and S. Dech. 2015: Global SnowPack – “A new set of snow cover parameters to study status and dynamics of the planetary snow cover extent.“ accepted for publication in Remote Sensing Letters. Dietz, A. J., C. Conrad, C. Kuenzer, G. Gesell, and S. Dech. 2014. “Identifying Changing Snow Cover Characteristics in Central Asia between 1986 and 2014 from Remote Sensing Data.” Remote Sensing 6 (12): 12752–75. doi:10.3390/rs61212752. Dietz, A. J., C. Kuenzer, and C. Conrad. 2013. “Snow-Cover Variability in Central Asia between 2000 and 2011 Derived from Improved MODIS Daily Snow-Cover Products.” International Journal of Remote Sensing 34 (11): 3879–3902. Dietz, A. J., C. Wohner, and C. Kuenzer. 2012. “European Snow Cover Characteristics between 2000 and 2011 Derived from Improved MODIS Daily Snow Cover Products.” Remote Sensing 4 (8): 2432–54. doi:10.3390/rs4082432.

  • SWACI is a research project of DLR supported by the State Government of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Radio signals, transmitted by modern communication and navigation systems may be heavily disturbed by space weather hazards. Thus, severe temporal and spatial changes of the electron density in the ionosphere may significantly degrade the signal quality of various radio systems which even may lead to a complete loss of the signal. By providing specific space weather information, in particular now- and forecast of the ionospheric state, the accuracy and reliability of impacted communication and navigation systems shall be improved. GPS radio occultation measurements onboard geo research satellites such as CHAMP and GRACE are used for retrieving vertical electron density profiles of the ionosphere. At present, only GPS measurements from GRACE are available. These data are routinely provided by GFZ Potsdam. Thus, the derived electron density profiles retrieved in SWACI are a common data product of DLR and GFZ Potsdam. Users are asked to acknowledge this in a proper way.

  • The Al Zaatari refugee camp in Jordan is situated approx. 12 km from the Syrian border and in close proximity to the city of Al Mafraq (10 km). Due to heavy rainfall in the region parts of the Zaatari camp are affected by flooding. The map shows the flood situation derived by semi-automatic image analysis of TerraSAR-X data acquired on January 10, 2013 at 03:38:49 UTC. Furthermore basic reference information, digitized on the basis of WorldView-2 satellite data acquired on January 03, 2013, at 08:52:52 UTC, is depicted. The contour lines were derived from ASTER GDEM 2 data (vertical accuracy +/- 6m). For a more detailed view on the flood situation, parts of the camp area are also shown in the zoom boxes. The results of the image interpretation and analysis have not been validated in the field. WorldView-2 satellite data acquired on January 03, 2013, is used as backdrop. Please note that flood waters in settlement areas might not be fully captured and the water extent might be underestimated due to sensor characteristics. Thus especially shallow water bodies might not be fully captured. The products elaborated for this Rapid Mapping Activity are realised to the best of our ability, within a very short time frame, optimising the material available. All geographic information has limitations due to the scale, resolution, date and interpretation of the original source materials. No liability concerning the content or the use thereof is assumed by the producer. The ZKI crisis maps are constantly updated. Please make sure to visit http://www.zki.dlr.de for the latest version of this product.

  • SWACI is a research project of DLR supported by the State Government of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Radio signals, transmitted by modern communication and navigation systems may be heavily disturbed by space weather hazards. Thus, severe temporal and spatial changes of the electron density in the ionosphere may significantly degrade the signal quality of various radio systems which even may lead to a complete loss of the signal. By providing specific space weather information, in particular now- and forecast of the ionospheric state, the accuracy and reliability of impacted communication and navigation systems shall be improved. The equivalent slab thickness is a measure of the width of the shape of the vertical electron density profile of the ionosphere. The equivalent slab thickness is defined by the ratio of the total electron content (TEC) and the peak electron density of the local ionosphere. To compute the peak electron density, vertical sounding data from different ionosonde stations are used. The corresponding TEC data are extracted from the SWACI TEC maps. For more details see http://swaciweb.dlr.de/data-and-products/public/slabthickness/?L=1.

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