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  • The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) instrument continues the long-term monitoring of atmospheric trace gas constituents started with GOME / ERS-2 and SCIAMACHY / Envisat. Currently, there are three GOME-2 instruments operating on board EUMETSAT's Meteorological Operational satellites MetOp-A, -B and -C, launched in October 2006, September 2012, and November 2018, respectively. GOME-2 can measure a range of atmospheric trace constituents, with the emphasis on global ozone distributions. Furthermore, cloud properties and intensities of ultraviolet radiation are retrieved. These data are crucial for monitoring the atmospheric composition and the detection of pollutants. DLR generates operational GOME-2 / MetOp level 2 products in the framework of EUMETSAT's Satellite Application Facility on Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (AC-SAF). GOME-2 near-real-time products are available already two hours after sensing. The operational H2O total column products are generated using the algorithm GDP (GOME Data Processor) version 4.x integrated into the UPAS (Universal Processor for UV/VIS Atmospheric Spectrometers) processor for generating level 2 trace gas and cloud products. The total H2O column is retrieved from GOME solar backscattered measurements in the red wavelength region (614-683.2 nm), using the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) method. For more details please refer to relevant peer-review papers listed on the GOME and GOME-2 documentation pages:

  • Indian Remote Sensing satellites (IRS) are a series of Earth Observation satellites, built, launched and maintained by Indian Space Research Organisation. The IRS series provides many remote sensing services to India and international ground stations. The revisit capability of only 5 days and the products coverage size of 370 km x 370 km make AWiFS products a valuable source for application fields such forestry and environmental monitoring

  • SWACI is a research project of DLR supported by the State Government of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Radio signals, transmitted by modern communication and navigation systems may be heavily disturbed by space weather hazards. Thus, severe temporal and spatial changes of the electron density in the ionosphere may significantly degrade the signal quality of various radio systems which even may lead to a complete loss of the signal. By providing specific space weather information, in particular now- and forecast of the ionospheric state, the accuracy and reliability of impacted communication and navigation systems shall be improved. The total electron content (TEC) is defined as the integral of the electron density along the ray path between satellite and receiver. Thus, TEC provides the number of electrons per square meter. The most frequently used unit is 1TECU = 1x1016 electrons / m2. TEC is derived from dual frequency code and carrier phase measurements provided by Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). SWACI uses GPS measurements from various European GNSS networks such as the International GNSS Service (IGS), European Reference Frame (EUREF), Norwegian Mapping Authority (NMA), and ascos distributed by the Federal Agency of Cartography and Geodesy (BKG) Frankfurt. The global TEC maps are mainly created by using data provided by the International GNSS Service Real-Time Pilot Project (IGS-RTPP). To generate TEC maps of vertical TEC, the slant measurements have to be transformed to the vertical. In a first approximation the ionospheric range error in GNSS is proportional to TEC. These TEC maps are used to derive latitudinal and zonal gradients, rate of change of TEC (5 min increments), 27 days medians, hourly forecasts of TEC, and corresponding error estimates. Spatial resolution (latitude x longitude): 2 °x 2° (Europe), 2.5° x 5° (globally)

  • The objective of the pan-European project CORINE Land Cover (CLC) is the provision of a unique and comparable data set of land cover for Europe and the delivery of regular updates to register also the land cover and land use changes over time. It is part of the European Union programme CORINE (Coordination of Information on the Environment). The mapping of the land cover and land use was performed on the basis of satellite remote sensing images. The first CLC data base CLC1990, which was finalized in the 1990s, consistently provided land use information comprising 44 classes, out of which 37 classes are relevant in Germany. The first two updates for Europe were based on the reference years 2000 and 2006. For Germany, DLR-DFD was responsible for the creation of CLC2000 and CLC2006 on behalf of the Federal Environment Agency. In addition to the updated land cover, change datasets were also parts of the project. For deriving a meaningful CLC2000 change product, it became necessary to re-interprete parts of the satellite data of 1990 and to create a revised product, called CLC1990 (rev). Further details:

  • E-SAR, “Experimental-SAR”, is an airborne imaging radar (Synthetic Aperture Radar) sensor operated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR), Microwaves and Radar Institute (HR) from 1988 until November 2009. It was operated on a Dornier Do-228 aircraft from altitudes of 2000 to 6000 m above ground in four different center frequency bands (X,C,L,P). Different center frequencies were operated sequentially in different overflights. Data were acquired either in one-channel, two-channel or four-channel mode in HH, HV, VV and/or VH polarization. Fully polarimetric data are available in L- and P-band only. Repeat-pass interferometry is available in L- and P-band. Single-pass interferometry is available in X-band only, in along- and across-track antenna configuration. Data are processed up to two different levels: RGI (Radar Geometry Image product) and GTC (Geocoded and Terrain-Corrected product). Resolutions range from 25 cm (X-band) to 1.5 m (P-band) in azimuth direction and from 1.8 m (X-band) to 3 m (P-band) in range direction. Data acquisition modes are “stripmap”, “repeat-pass” (two parallel tracks) or “tomography” (several parallel tracks). For more information concerning E-SAR data, the reader is referred to:

  • The TimeScan product is based on the fully-automated analysis of comprehensive time-series acquisitions of Landsat data. Based on a user-specified definition of the required period of time, the region of interest and – optionally – the maximum cloud cover, the TimeScan processor starts with the collection of all available Landsat scenes that meet the user specification. Next, for each single scene masking of clouds, haze and shadow is conducted using the Fmask algorithm. Then, a total of 6 indices is calculated for those pixels of each single scene that have not been masked in the prior step. The set of indices includes the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Built-up Index (BI), the Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI), the Normalized Difference Band-5 / Band-7 (ND57), the Normalized Difference Band-4 / Band-3 (ND43), and the Normalized Difference Band-3 / Band-2 (ND32). Finally, the TimeScan product is generated by calculating the temporal statistics (minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation, mean slope) for each index over the defined period of time. Hence, in case of the defined 6 indices chosen, the TimeScan product will include a total of 30 bands (5 statistical features per index). As an additional band a quality layer is added which shows for each pixel the number of valid values (meaning times with no cloud/haze or shadow cover) that have been included in the statistics calculation.

  • This product comprises yearly composites and temporal statistics of selected vegetation indices (VI) for all of Germany from 2015 to today in 10m resolution, which were calculated using the DLR TimeScan processor. VIs (EVI, HA56, NDRE, NDVI, NDWI, PSRI and REIP) were calculated from Sentinel-2 Level 2A data at 10m spatial resolution produced by means of the DLR-PACO processor. Yearly compositing and temporal statistics are based on all valid and cloud-free observations per vegetation index. Derived variables per index are: minimum (min), maximum (max), mean, standard-deviation (sd), average absolute difference between observations (masd) as well as the number of cloud-free observations (n-cloudfree) and the total number of observations (n-obs). This is a product of the AGRO-DE project (

  • The map shows the Al Zaatari refugee camp in Jordan. It is situated approx. 12 km from the Syrian border and in close proximity to the city of Al Mafraq (10 km). The camp was set up on July 28, 2012 to shelter refugees fleeing the conflict in Syria. The vector data have been digitized on the basis of WorldView-2 satellite data (0.5m spatial resolution) acquired on January 03, 2013. The results have not been validated in the field. WorldView-2 satellite data acquired on January 03, 2013 is used as backdrop. The products elaborated for this Rapid Mapping Activity are realised to the best of our ability, within a very short time frame, optimising the material available. All geographic information has limitations due to the scale, resolution, date and interpretation of the original source materials. No liability concerning the content or the use thereof is assumed by the producer. The ZKI crisis maps are constantly updated. Please make sure to visit for the latest version of this product.

  • Every day, three successive NOAA-AVHRR scenes are used to derive a synthesis product in stereographic projection known as the "Normalized Difference Vegetation Index" for Europe and North Africa. It is calculated by dividing the difference in technical albedos between measurements in the near infrared and visible red part of the spectrum by the sum of both measurements. This value provides important information about the "greenness" and density of vegetation. Weekly and monthly thematic synthesis products are also derived from this daily operational product, at each step becoming successively free of clouds. For additional information, please see:

  • TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurements) is an Earth observation radar mission that consists of a SAR interferometer built by two almost identical satellites flying in close formation. With a typical separation between the satellites of 120m to 500m a global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) has been generated. The main objective of the TanDEM-X mission is to create a precise 3D map of the Earth's land surfaces that is homogeneous in quality and unprecedented in accuracy. The data acquisition was completed in 2015 and production of the global DEM was completed in September 2016. The absolute height error is with about 1m an order of magnitude below the 10m requirement. The TanDEM-X 30m DEM is a product variant of the global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) acquired in the frame of the German TanDEM-X mission between 2010 and 2015, and has a reduced pixel spacing of 1 arcsecond (30m at the equator). It covers all Earth’s landmasses from pole to pole. For more information concerning the TanDEM-X mission, the reader is referred to:

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