Soil is a non-renewable resource that is currently under increasing pressure by the competition between food and feed production on the one hand and the production of renewable raw materials on the other. Erosion by water and wind as well as soil compaction by traversing the soils with heavy machinery is a burden for soils and can be significantly reduced by an adapted soil management. The theme maps of soil risks in Germany are based on the landuse stratified soil map of Germany 1:1,000,000 (BUEK1000N), the Digital Elevation Model DGM50 of the German Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG), climatic information of the German Meteorological Service (DWD) for the period 1961-1990 as well as on land use data from the data set CORINE Landcover 2006 (UBA).
In order to support the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD), the German State Geological Surveys (SGD) and the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) agreed in 2000 to compile a digital hydrogeological map at the scale of 1:200,000 (HÜK200), providing a harmonised survey of the upper groundwater bodies in Germany. The HÜK200 captures hydrogeologically relevant attributes such as consolidation, type of porosity, permeability, type of rock and geochemical classification to describe the hydrogeological characteristics of the rocks of the uppermost aquifers. The geological information on lithology, stratigraphy and genesis of the geological map of Germany 1:200,000 (GÜK200) provided the basic data. This information was evaluated and hydrogeologically interpreted by regional experts of the SGD or replaced and completed by other regional geological and hydrogeological maps and data where necessary. 2019, HÜK200 was migrated to a scale of 1:250.000 (now HÜK250).
The exchange frequency of water in soils describes how often water and the dissolved substances in it can be replaced in a soil layer during the annual leachate flow. Small water storage capacity means high replacement frequency. The risk of the discharge of easily detachable materials like nitrate is given at high exchange rates.
In the original version of the map (Map “Hydrogeology” of the Hydrological Atlas of Germany (HAD)), the surface rocks are first divided into four main types, with further differentiation depending on the extent and productivity. This original subdivision has been resolved applying the internationally widely used Standard Legend for Hydrogeological Maps (SLHyM) after Struckmeier & Margat (1995). This makes the map clearer and easier to read, but above all, it is comparable to other European hydrogeological country and regional maps, such as the International Hydrogeological Map of Europe (IHME1500). The productivity classes have been derived from permeability values. In addition, the surface strata are divided into 19 different types of consolidated or unconsolidated rocks and four types of covering layers. The map is based on the digital Geological Map of Germany 1:1,000,000 (GK1000) published by BGR in 1993.
The application “Information System Salt Structures” provides information about the areal distribution of salt structures (stocks and pillows) in Northern Germany. With general structural describing information, such as depth, secondary thickness, types of use or state of exploration, queries can be conducted. Contours of the salt structures can be displayed at horizontal cross-sections at four different depths up to a maximum depth of 2000 m below NN. A data sheet with information and further reading is provided for every single salt structure. Taking into account the fact that this work was undertaken at a scale for providing an overview and not for investigation of single structures, the scale of display is limited to a minimum of 1:300.000. This web application is the product of a BMWi-funded research project “InSpEE” running from the year 2012 to 2015. The acronym stands for Information system salt structures: planning basis, selection criteria and estimation of the potential for the construction of salt caverns for the storage of renewable energies (hydrogen and compressed air)”.
The Geological Map of Germany 1:1,000,000 (GK1000) represents the geology of Germany and adjacent areas. The Quaternary units of Northern Germany and the Alpine foreland are described by their genesis.The older sedimentary rocks are classified by age (stratigraphy); igneous and metamorphic rocks are classified by their composition (lithology).
The map shows the average annual groundwater recharge of Germany for the period 1961 - 1990 as a raster image in a cell range of 1 x 1 km. For this purpose, a multi-step regression model was developed (Neumann, J. 2005). In a first step, the baseflow index (BFI = baseflow / total runoff) was determined as the regression target size as a function of slope gradient, drainage density, land cover, available field capacity, depth to groundwater and the ratio of direct runoff to total runoff. Based on this, two different model variants were developed for low-drainage (R 200 mm/a) and high-drainage regions (R 200 mm / a). For R 200 mm/a, groundwater recharge rates were calculated by multiplying the regional grid-based baseflow index and the area-differentiated total runoff according to BAGLUVA. For the higher values R 200 mm/a, a second regression equation has been used which, in addition to the base flow index, also requires the BAGLUVA total runoff and the depth to groundwater.
The map shows the representative chemical content of groundwater for 22 hydrogeological subregions of Germany. The classification of each sub-region was based on the TDS value (total dissolved solids) and the chemical inventory. According to the degree of mineralization, five classes of waters were distinguished (very small, low, medium, high and strongly changing solution contents). The classification of the waters by their chemical inventory was made according to the equivalent percentage of the main cations and anions based on the Piper quadruple diagram. With this chemical classification and the degree of mineralization, 22 geogenic groundwater types could be differentiated throughout Germany. The basis for the mapping of geogenic groundwater quality is the "Hydrogeological Regions" map. The water quality data comes from the groundwater monitoring networks of the German federal states, which were collected by the State Geological Surveys or the State Environmental Surveys. Further analyses are based on the data of the former Central Geological Institute (ZGI) of the GDR. In total, sample data of nearly 8,000 observation wells have been evaluated.
The Potential Wind Erosion Risk map gives an overview of the exposure of arable soils to soil loss due to deflation in Germany. It is based on pedological and climatic factors. The method to predict the soil erosion risk is published in the DIN 19706:2002 and in the documentation of Ad-hoc-AG Boden (representing the soil experts of the geological services of the German federal states). For the application with soil maps, the method was adapted by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR).The land use stratified soil map of Germany at scale 1:1,000,000 was used as pedological input to the model. The mean annual wind speed at 10 meters above ground level of the period 1980-2000 (DWD) is used as well. The land use information is derived from CORINE land cover data set (2006).
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