The map shows the average annual groundwater recharge of Germany for the period 1961 - 1990 as a raster image in a cell range of 1 x 1 km. For this purpose, a multi-step regression model was developed (Neumann, J. 2005). In a first step, the baseflow index (BFI = baseflow / total runoff) was determined as the regression target size as a function of slope gradient, drainage density, land cover, available field capacity, depth to groundwater and the ratio of direct runoff to total runoff. Based on this, two different model variants were developed for low-drainage (R < 200 mm/a) and high-drainage regions (R > 200 mm / a). For R < 200 mm/a, groundwater recharge rates were calculated by multiplying the regional grid-based baseflow index and the area-differentiated total runoff according to BAGLUVA. For the higher values R > 200 mm/a, a second regression equation has been used which, in addition to the base flow index, also requires the BAGLUVA total runoff and the depth to groundwater.
The spatial distribution of geogenic groundwater background values for hydrogeochemical and physicochemical parameters of the near-surface groundwater bodies is represented based on the HÜK200. Background values are used to describe the nature of the groundwater bodies and provide a basis for decisions on the differentiation between geogenic and conspicuous data. The representation of background values is a contribution of SGD and BGR to describe groundwater bodies and thus serves to implement the European Water Framework Directive (WFD).
The relief of the earth's surface is a major controlling factor for ecological processes and a key indicator of the distribution patterns of important geological factors such as soil, rock and water. On the basis of a digital elevation model with a grid size of 250 meters, the company scilands GmbH in Göttingen produced on behalf of BGR the geomorphographic map of Germany. The programs SARA (System for Automatic Terrain Analysis) and SADO (System for Analysis and Discretization of Surfaces) determined 25 discrete geomorphograpic units (sink areas, closed hollow forms, slope areas, parietal areas, overlay forms) in four different landscape areas (North German Lowland, highland, Alpine foothills and Alps).
This dataset has been compiled within the BGR project "D-AERO-Auswertung" based on several survey area located along the German North Sea coast. The BGR helicopter (Sikorsky S-76B) is used for airborne geophysical surveying of the Earth’s subsurface. The standard equipment comprises the methods electromagnetics, magnetics and radiometrics. The active multi-frequency, helicopter-borne electromagnetic (HEM) system, which consists of circular (diameter about 0.5 m) transmitter and receiver coils (horizontal separation about 8 m) operating at five and since 2007 at six system frequencies, is housed by a flying tube (bird) about 40 m beneath the helicopter. The HEM system used before 2002 consisted of rectangular coils (horizontal separation slightly less than 7 m) and five system frequencies (0.4 - 190 kHz). The ratio of received and transmitted signal yields to the electrical conductivity down to 50/150 m depth in case of conductive/resistive subsurface. The results are displayed as apparent resistivity (= half-space resistivity) and centroid depth maps at each of the six system frequencies ranging from 0.4 to 130 kHz.
The map shows the representative chemical content of groundwater for 22 hydrogeological subregions of Germany. The classification of each sub-region was based on the TDS value (total dissolved solids) and the chemical inventory. According to the degree of mineralization, five classes of waters were distinguished (very small, low, medium, high and strongly changing solution contents). The classification of the waters by their chemical inventory was made according to the equivalent percentage of the main cations and anions based on the Piper quadruple diagram. With this chemical classification and the degree of mineralization, 22 geogenic groundwater types could be differentiated throughout Germany. The basis for the mapping of geogenic groundwater quality is the "Hydrogeological Regions" map. The water quality data comes from the groundwater monitoring networks of the German federal states, which were collected by the State Geological Surveys or the State Environmental Surveys. Further analyses are based on the data of the former Central Geological Institute (ZGI) of the GDR. In total, sample data of nearly 8,000 observation wells have been evaluated.
The map of the annual rate of capillary rise from the groundwater zone into the effective rooting zone of the soils in Germany gives an overview of the amount of groundwater that passes through evapotranspiration to the surface.
The visualisation of the protection potential of aquifer covering strata is a contribution of the State Geological Surveys (SGD) to describe the groundwater bodies as part of the reporting commitment for implementing the European Water Framework Directive. The indicated protection potential refers to the upper contiguous aquifer based on the specifications of the LAWA working guideline and suggests a categorisation of good, medium or poor protection potential. Depending on the availability of adequate digital information to assess the protection potential, two approaches have been established by the federal states. Approach 1: Using conventional empirical methods, the states of Berlin, Brandenburg, Hesse, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland, Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein have classified existing spatial information (from HÜK 200 or other state-specific basic information) and / or point information (profiles of boreholes) regarding their potential protective effect towards the intrusion of contaminants and have interpreted these according to LAWA guidelines. Approach 2: In the states of Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Hamburg, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia a methodology – developed by the SGD´s – for the determination of the protection potential of aquifer covering strata (HÖLTING et al., Geol. Jb. C 63, Hannover 1995) was applied. It concludes in more differentiated statements, however, it requires comprehensive information on percolation rate / groundwater recharge, available field capacity of the soil, rock type and thickness of the aquifer covering strata, the structural properties of the hard rocks and artesian conditions. The classification is based on a scoring system and was translated according to LAWA standards. Areas of stagnant surface water and areas with insufficient information density have not been rated.
Soil is a non-renewable resource that is currently under increasing pressure by the competition between food and feed production on the one hand and the production of renewable raw materials on the other. Erosion by water and wind as well as soil compaction by traversing the soils with heavy machinery is a burden for soils and can be significantly reduced by an adapted soil management. The theme maps of soil risks in Germany are based on the landuse stratified soil map of Germany 1:1,000,000 (BUEK1000N), the Digital Elevation Model DGM50 of the German Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG), climatic information of the German Meteorological Service (DWD) for the period 1961-1990 as well as on land use data from the data set CORINE Landcover 2006 (UBA).
The IHME1500 v1.2 is a vector dataset resulting from the digitisation of the 25 published map sheets of the International Hydrogeological Map of Europe at the of scale 1:1,500,000 (IHME1500). The dataset was extended for five unpublished, digitised IHME1500 map sheets to achieve full map coverage. It consists of selected features of the IHME1500 with the following content: - Aquifer types (area): Distinction of six types of aquifers according to their productivity and void types. - Lithology (area): Lithological classification of the aquifers at five aggregation levels. - Seawater intrusion (area): Areas with salination of groundwater caused by sea water intrusion. - Tectonic fractures (line): Geological lineaments assigned to the five classes of known or supposed faults or overthrusts and boundaries of fractured belts in Iceland. The IHME1500 v1.2 includes a correction of inconsistencies of the printed map sheets and was spatially adjusted to an up-to-date topographic base. The IHME1500 is a hydrogeological map series consisting of 25 published map sheets with explanatory notes that covers the European continent and parts of the Near East. The Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) are the project coordinators, supported by the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) and the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW). Each sheet consists of contributions by the respective countries represented in the map, which were harmonised across borders. The map series including the explanatory notes can be used for scientific purposes, for large-scale regional planning and as a framework for detailed hydrogeological mapping.
Web Map Service (WMS) of the map Heavy metal and trace element background values in German Soils. A concept to derive spatially representative heavy metal and trace element background values in topsoils, subsoils, and deeper soil horizons was developed and applied. The concept is based on a differentiation of background values according to soil parent material groups at the first level. Spatial information is given by a small-scale (1:1,000,000) digital map of soil parent material groups and additional information on soil types. For top soils the background values are also differentiated according to land use. To derive representative background values site-specific soil data have been compiled from different sources (soil data from federal institutions and institutions of the federal states) regarding aspects of data harmonization and minimum soil information requirements. Based on information of about 5000 soil profiles representative background values for top soils, sub-soils and deeper soil horizons can be derived for the dominating groups of soil parent material in Germany with a current spatial coverage of about 90%. More information about the method is given in the LABO-report (2003): 'Hintergrundwerte für anorganische und organische Stoffe in Böden, 3. überarbeitete und ergänzte Auflage'.
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