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  • Indian Remote Sensing satellites (IRS) are a series of Earth Observation satellites, built, launched and maintained by Indian Space Research Organisation. The IRS series provides many remote sensing services to India and international ground stations. The revisit capability of only 5 days and the products coverage size of 370 km x 370 km make AWiFS products a valuable source for application fields such forestry and environmental monitoring

  • SWACI is a research project of DLR supported by the State Government of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Radio signals, transmitted by modern communication and navigation systems may be heavily disturbed by space weather hazards. Thus, severe temporal and spatial changes of the electron density in the ionosphere may significantly degrade the signal quality of various radio systems which even may lead to a complete loss of the signal. By providing specific space weather information, in particular now- and forecast of the ionospheric state, the accuracy and reliability of impacted communication and navigation systems shall be improved. Small scale irregularities of the ionospheric plasma may cause fluctuations of the signal strength of radio waves. The S4-Index is a measure to describe the amplitude- respectively the intensity fluctuations of a signal. The σφ-Index, describes the behaviour of carrier phase fluctuations. Both indices are calculated over a one minute interval. DLR’s high rate GNSS measurement network ranges from auroral to equatorial latitudes. The measurements are provided in near real time by DLR’s Experimentation and Verification Network (EVnet) [Noack et al., 2004, 2005]. We thank the hosting institutes for supplying the required infrastructure.

  • SWACI is a research project of DLR supported by the State Government of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Radio signals, transmitted by modern communication and navigation systems may be heavily disturbed by space weather hazards. Thus, severe temporal and spatial changes of the electron density in the ionosphere may significantly degrade the signal quality of various radio systems which even may lead to a complete loss of the signal. By providing specific space weather information, in particular now- and forecast of the ionospheric state, the accuracy and reliability of impacted communication and navigation systems shall be improved. The equivalent slab thickness is a measure of the width of the shape of the vertical electron density profile of the ionosphere. The equivalent slab thickness is defined by the ratio of the total electron content (TEC) and the peak electron density of the local ionosphere. To compute the peak electron density, vertical sounding data from different ionosonde stations are used. The corresponding TEC data are extracted from the SWACI TEC maps. For more details see http://swaciweb.dlr.de/data-and-products/public/slabthickness/?L=1.

  • This product shows Snow Cover Duration (SCD) for the whole hydrological year (Sept. 1st of a given year until Aug. 31st of the next year). Information about extent, beginning, duration and melt of snow cover are important for climate research, hydrological applications, flood prediction and weather forecast. Climate change is influencing the characteristics and duration of snow cover, affecting landscape, hydrology, flora, fauna, and humans in equal measure. Therefore, precise information about the different snow parameters and their development over time are particularly important for various research fields. The “Global SnowPack” is a dataset containing information about snow cover parameters on a global scale. Overall, early season, and late season snow cover duration are included and allow detailed insights in the characteristics of this most relevant part of Earth’s cryosphere. The parameters are being derived from daily, operational MODIS snow cover products for every year since 2000. The negative effects of polar darkness and cloud coverage are compensated by applying several processing steps. Thereby, a unique global dataset can be provided that is characterized by its high accuracy, a spatial resolution of 500 meter and continuous future enhancements. For more information please also refer to: Dietz, A. J., C. Kuenzer, and S. Dech. 2015: Global SnowPack – “A new set of snow cover parameters to study status and dynamics of the planetary snow cover extent.“ accepted for publication in Remote Sensing Letters. Dietz, A. J., C. Conrad, C. Kuenzer, G. Gesell, and S. Dech. 2014. “Identifying Changing Snow Cover Characteristics in Central Asia between 1986 and 2014 from Remote Sensing Data.” Remote Sensing 6 (12): 12752–75. doi:10.3390/rs61212752. Dietz, A. J., C. Kuenzer, and C. Conrad. 2013. “Snow-Cover Variability in Central Asia between 2000 and 2011 Derived from Improved MODIS Daily Snow-Cover Products.” International Journal of Remote Sensing 34 (11): 3879–3902. Dietz, A. J., C. Wohner, and C. Kuenzer. 2012. “European Snow Cover Characteristics between 2000 and 2011 Derived from Improved MODIS Daily Snow Cover Products.” Remote Sensing 4 (8): 2432–54. doi:10.3390/rs4082432.

  • Indian Remote Sensing satellites (IRS) are a series of Earth Observation satellites, built, launched and maintained by Indian Space Research Organisation. The IRS series provides many remote sensing services to India and international ground stations. The satellite has two panchromatic cameras that were especially designed for in flight stereo viewing. However, this collection contains the monoscopic data.

  • SWACI is a research project of DLR supported by the State Government of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Radio signals, transmitted by modern communication and navigation systems may be heavily disturbed by space weather hazards. Thus, severe temporal and spatial changes of the electron density in the ionosphere may significantly degrade the signal quality of various radio systems which even may lead to a complete loss of the signal. By providing specific space weather information, in particular now- and forecast of the ionospheric state, the accuracy and reliability of impacted communication and navigation systems shall be improved. The total electron content (TEC) is defined as the integral of the electron density along the ray path between satellite and receiver. Thus, TEC provides the number of electrons per square meter. The most frequently used unit is 1TECU = 1x1016 electrons / m2. TEC is derived from dual frequency code and carrier phase measurements provided by Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). SWACI uses GPS measurements from various European GNSS networks such as the International GNSS Service (IGS), European Reference Frame (EUREF), Norwegian Mapping Authority (NMA), and ascos distributed by the Federal Agency of Cartography and Geodesy (BKG) Frankfurt. The global TEC maps are mainly created by using data provided by the International GNSS Service Real-Time Pilot Project (IGS-RTPP). To generate TEC maps of vertical TEC, the slant measurements have to be transformed to the vertical. In a first approximation the ionospheric range error in GNSS is proportional to TEC. These TEC maps are used to derive latitudinal and zonal gradients, rate of change of TEC (5 min increments), 27 days medians, hourly forecasts of TEC, and corresponding error estimates. Spatial resolution (latitude x longitude): 2 °x 2° (Europe), 2.5° x 5° (globally)

  • SWACI is a research project of DLR supported by the State Government of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Radio signals, transmitted by modern communication and navigation systems may be heavily disturbed by space weather hazards. Thus, severe temporal and spatial changes of the electron density in the ionosphere may significantly degrade the signal quality of various radio systems which even may lead to a complete loss of the signal. By providing specific space weather information, in particular now- and forecast of the ionospheric state, the accuracy and reliability of impacted communication and navigation systems shall be improved. The total electron content (TEC) is defined as the integral of the electron density along the ray path between satellite and receiver. Thus, TEC provides the number of electrons per square meter. The most frequently used unit is 1TECU = 1x1016 electrons / m2. TEC is derived from dual frequency code and carrier phase measurements provided by Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). SWACI uses GPS measurements from various European GNSS networks such as the International GNSS Service (IGS), European Reference Frame (EUREF), Norwegian Mapping Authority (NMA), and ascos distributed by the Federal Agency of Cartography and Geodesy (BKG) Frankfurt. The global TEC maps are mainly created by using data provided by the International GNSS Service Real-Time Pilot Project (IGS-RTPP). To generate TEC maps of vertical TEC, the slant measurements have to be transformed to the vertical. In a first approximation the ionospheric range error in GNSS is proportional to TEC. These TEC maps are used to derive latitudinal and zonal gradients, rate of change of TEC (5 min increments), 27 days medians, hourly forecasts of TEC, and corresponding error estimates. Spatial resolution (latitude x longitude): 2 °x 2° (Europe), 2.5° x 5° (globally)

  • SWACI is a research project of DLR supported by the State Government of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Radio signals, transmitted by modern communication and navigation systems may be heavily disturbed by space weather hazards. Thus, severe temporal and spatial changes of the electron density in the ionosphere may significantly degrade the signal quality of various radio systems which even may lead to a complete loss of the signal. By providing specific space weather information, in particular now- and forecast of the ionospheric state, the accuracy and reliability of impacted communication and navigation systems shall be improved. The total electron content (TEC) is defined as the integral of the electron density along the ray path between satellite and receiver. Thus, TEC provides the number of electrons per square meter. The most frequently used unit is 1TECU = 1x1016 electrons / m2. TEC is derived from dual frequency code and carrier phase measurements provided by Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). SWACI uses GPS measurements from various European GNSS networks such as the International GNSS Service (IGS), European Reference Frame (EUREF), Norwegian Mapping Authority (NMA), and ascos distributed by the Federal Agency of Cartography and Geodesy (BKG) Frankfurt. The global TEC maps are mainly created by using data provided by the International GNSS Service Real-Time Pilot Project (IGS-RTPP). To generate TEC maps of vertical TEC, the slant measurements have to be transformed to the vertical. In a first approximation the ionospheric range error in GNSS is proportional to TEC. These TEC maps are used to derive latitudinal and zonal gradients, rate of change of TEC (5 min increments), 27 days medians, hourly forecasts of TEC, and corresponding error estimates. Spatial resolution (latitude x longitude): 2 °x 2° (Europe), 2.5° x 5° (globally)

  • SWACI is a research project of DLR supported by the State Government of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Radio signals, transmitted by modern communication and navigation systems may be heavily disturbed by space weather hazards. Thus, severe temporal and spatial changes of the electron density in the ionosphere may significantly degrade the signal quality of various radio systems which even may lead to a complete loss of the signal. By providing specific space weather information, in particular now- and forecast of the ionospheric state, the accuracy and reliability of impacted communication and navigation systems shall be improved. NmF2 Maps and 3D electron density distribution: According to the pioneer work of Sir E. Appleton the vertical structure of the terrestrial ionosphere may be devided into different layers (D, E, F1, F2) with different physical characteristics. The layers are primarily characterized by its height and peak electron density. Typical plasma frequencies /electron densities are in the order of 10 MHz /1012 electrons / m3. Shown are here global maps of the peak electron density of the F2 layer and related electron density maps at selected altitudes. The figures provide a first estimation of the three dimensional electron density distributions around the globe. For more details see http://swaciweb.dlr.de/data-and-products/public/nmf2/?L=1.

  • SWACI is a research project of DLR supported by the State Government of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Radio signals, transmitted by modern communication and navigation systems may be heavily disturbed by space weather hazards. Thus, severe temporal and spatial changes of the electron density in the ionosphere may significantly degrade the signal quality of various radio systems which even may lead to a complete loss of the signal. By providing specific space weather information, in particular now- and forecast of the ionospheric state, the accuracy and reliability of impacted communication and navigation systems shall be improved. The total electron content (TEC) is defined as the integral of the electron density along the ray path between satellite and receiver. Thus, TEC provides the number of electrons per square meter. The most frequently used unit is 1TECU = 1x1016 electrons / m2. TEC is derived from dual frequency code and carrier phase measurements provided by Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). SWACI uses GPS measurements from various European GNSS networks such as the International GNSS Service (IGS), European Reference Frame (EUREF), Norwegian Mapping Authority (NMA), and ascos distributed by the Federal Agency of Cartography and Geodesy (BKG) Frankfurt. The global TEC maps are mainly created by using data provided by the International GNSS Service Real-Time Pilot Project (IGS-RTPP). To generate TEC maps of vertical TEC, the slant measurements have to be transformed to the vertical. In a first approximation the ionospheric range error in GNSS is proportional to TEC. These TEC maps are used to derive latitudinal and zonal gradients, rate of change of TEC (5 min increments), 27 days medians, hourly forecasts of TEC, and corresponding error estimates. Spatial resolution (latitude x longitude): 2 °x 2° (Europe), 2.5° x 5° (globally)

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