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biota

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  • The BOREAS RSS-07 team collected various data sets to develop and validate an algorithm to allow the retrieval of the spatial distribution of LAI from remotely sensed images. Ground measurements of LAI and FPAR absorbed by the plant canopy were made using the LAI-2000 and TRAC optical instruments during focused periods from 09-AUG-1993 to 19-SEP-1994. The measurements were intensive at the NSA and SSA tower sites, but were made just once or twice at auxiliary sites. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]BOREAS_R07ELAID ]

  • The BOREAS TE-04 team collected continuous records of gas exchange under ambient conditions from intact boreal forest trees in the BOREAS NSA from 23-Jul-1996 until 14-Aug-1996. These measurements can be used to test models of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and leaf respiration, such as SiB2 (Sellers et al., 1996) or the leaf model (Collatz et al., 1991), and programs can be obtained from the investigators. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]BOREAS_TE04BBAG ]

  • The BOREAS TE-08 team collected pigment density data from aspen bark and leaves from four sites within the BOREAS SSA from 24-May-1994 to 16-Jun-1994 (IFC-1), 19-Jul-1994 to 08-Aug-1994 (IFC 2), and 30-Aug-1994 to 19-Sep-1994 (IFC-3). One to nine trees from each site were sampled during the three IFCs. Each tree was sampled in five different locations for bark pigment properties: basal stem section, which was any bark sample taken below one-half the tree height; upper stem section, which was any bark sample taken from the main stem above one-half the tree height; bark taken from branches up to 3 years old; a 2-year old branch segment; and a 1-year old branch segment. Additionally, a limited number of leaves were collected. Bark samples were removed from the stem of the tree, placed in ziplock bags, and transported to UNH, where they were processed and analyzed by a spectrophotometer. In each data file, samples are identified by Site, date, Tree#, and Sample Location (see 1st paragraph above). Pigment density values are normalized to mg/m2. Density values for the following pigments are provided: Chl a, Chl b, Total Chl (Chl a+b), Carotenoids, Chl a to b ratio, and the Total Chl to carotenoids ratio. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]BOREAS_TE08BCHM ]

  • The BOREAS HYD-03 team collected several data sets related to the hydrology of forested areas. This data set contains measurements of tree diameter at breast height (DBH) from a variety of sites. This study was undertaken to predict spatial distributions of energy transfer, snow properties important to the hydrology, remote sensing signatures, and transmissivity of gases through the snow and their relation to forests in boreal ecosystems. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]BOREAS_H03DBHD ]

  • A newly developed ground-based canopy imaging system called an MVI was tested and used by the BOREAS TE-06 team to collect measurements of the canopy gap fraction (sky fraction), canopy gap-size distribution (size and frequency of gaps between foliage in canopy), branch architecture, and leaf angle distribution (fraction of leaf area in specific leaf inclination classes assuming azimuthal symmetry). Measurements of the canopy gap-size distribution are used to derive canopy clumping indices that can be used to adjust indirect LAI measurements made in nonrandom forests. These clumping factors will also help to describe the radiation penetration in clumped canopies more accurately by allowing for simple adjustments to Beer's law. Measurements of the above quantities were obtained at BOREAS NSA OJP site in IFC-2 in 1994, at the SSA OA in July 1995, and at the SSA OBS and SSA OA sites in IFC-2 in 1996. Modeling studies were also performed to further validate MVI measurements and to gain a more complete understanding of boreal forest canopy architecture. By using MVI measurements and Monte Carlo simulations, clumping indices as a function of zenith angle were derived for the three main boreal species studied during BOREAS. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]BOREAS_TE6MLTVG ]

  • The BOREAS TE-06 team collected several data sets to examine the influence of vegetation, climate, and their interactions on the major carbon fluxes for boreal forest species. This data set contains estimates of the biomass produced by the plant species at the TF, CEV, and AUX sites in the SSA and NSA for a given year. Temporally, the data cover the years of 1985 to 1995. The plant biomass production (i.e., aboveground, belowground, understory, litterfall), spatial coverage, and temporal nature of measurements varied between the TF, CEV, and AUX sites as deemed necessary by BOREAS principal investigators. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]BOREAS_TE6NPP ]

  • The BOREAS TE-09 team collected several data sets related to chemical and photosynthetic properties of leaves. This data set contains canopy biochemistry data collected in 1994 in the NSA at the YJP, OJP, OBS, BS and OA sites including biochemistry lignin, nitrogen, cellulose, starch, and fiber concentrations. These data were collected to study the spatial and temporal changes in the canopy biochemistry of boreal forest cover types and how a high-resolution radiative transfer model in the mid-infrared could be applied in an effort to obtain better estimates of canopy biochemical properties using remote sensing. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]BOREAS_TE9BIOAV ]

  • The BOREAS TE-09 team collected several data sets related to chemical and photosynthetic properties of leaves. This data set contains canopy biochemistry data collected in 1994 in the NSA at the YJP, OJP, OBS, BS and OA sites including biochemistry lignin, nitrogen, cellulose, starch, and fiber concentrations. These data were collected to study the spatial and temporal changes in the canopy biochemistry of boreal forest cover types and how a high-resolution radiative transfer model in the mid-infrared could be applied in an effort to obtain better estimates of canopy biochemical properties using remote sensing. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]BOREAS_TE9BIOPD ]

  • The NPP Database contains documented field measurements of NPP for global terrestrial sites compiled from published literature and other extant data sources. The NPP Database contains biomass dynamics, climate, and site-characteristics data georeferenced to each intensive site. A major goal of the data compilation is to use consistent and standard well-documented methods to estimate NPP from the field data. Other important components of the database include a summary, investigator contact information, and a list of key references for each site. As far as possible, the original principal investigator or his/her successor has been contacted to review the data and documentation. The NPP Database currently contains detailed data for over 60 intensive study sites. A majority of these sites are grasslands, the remainder being tropical forests, boreal forests, and tundra study sites. Some combination of above-ground annual peak live biomass data and/or seasonal biomass dynamics data are available for all sites. Many sites also have data on below-ground biomass and/or turnover. Estimates of net primary productivity are included, where available, for individual sites, and as part of the NPP Summary tables. Climate and soils data are available for all sites in varying degrees of detail. The sites have been grouped according to vegetation maps based upon Bailey ecoregions, Holdridge Life-Zones, Matthews vegetation classes, and Olson World Ecosystem Complexes. Previously compiled multi-site data sets of georeferenced NPP estimates are also provided. NPP estimates are available from a number of different collections, containing more than 1700 sites but with less information available for each individual site as compared to the intensive sites. Records for these sites typically include an NPP value, latitude and longitude, original source of the data, and sometimes information on vegetation type, management, soils, and local climate. More information on the entire Net Primary Productivity Project can be found at the NPP home page, with links to further details on individual study sites or multi-site collections. Users are encouraged to browse these Web pages to find details of original studies, methodologies, and original research contacts. NPP data are available on-line from the ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. Data Citation: Cite the data sets using the following reference format: Author, P. A., and M. B. Author. Year. Data Set Title. Available on-line from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. For example: Williamson, P., and J. Pitman. 1999. NPP Grassland: Beacon Hill, U.K. 1972-1973. Available on-line from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]CLB_NPP ]

  • The NPP Database contains documented field measurements of NPP for global terrestrial sites compiled from published literature and other extant data sources. The NPP Database contains biomass dynamics, climate, and site-characteristics data georeferenced to each intensive site. A major goal of the data compilation is to use consistent and standard well-documented methods to estimate NPP from the field data. Other important components of the database include a summary, investigator contact information, and a list of key references for each site. As far as possible, the original principal investigator or his/her successor has been contacted to review the data and documentation. The NPP Database currently contains detailed data for over 60 intensive study sites. A majority of these sites are grasslands, the remainder being tropical forests, boreal forests, and tundra study sites. Some combination of above-ground annual peak live biomass data and/or seasonal biomass dynamics data are available for all sites. Many sites also have data on below-ground biomass and/or turnover. Estimates of net primary productivity are included, where available, for individual sites, and as part of the NPP Summary tables. Climate and soils data are available for all sites in varying degrees of detail. The sites have been grouped according to vegetation maps based upon Bailey ecoregions, Holdridge Life-Zones, Matthews vegetation classes, and Olson World Ecosystem Complexes. Previously compiled multi-site data sets of georeferenced NPP estimates are also provided. NPP estimates are available from a number of different collections, containing more than 1700 sites but with less information available for each individual site as compared to the intensive sites. Records for these sites typically include an NPP value, latitude and longitude, original source of the data, and sometimes information on vegetation type, management, soils, and local climate. More information on the entire Net Primary Productivity Project can be found at the NPP home page, with links to further details on individual study sites or multi-site collections. Users are encouraged to browse these Web pages to find details of original studies, methodologies, and original research contacts Data Citation: Cite the data sets using the following reference format: Author, P. A., and M. B. Author. Year. Data Set Title. Available on-line from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. For example: Williamson, P., and J. Pitman. 1999. NPP Grassland: Beacon Hill, U.K. 1972-1973. Available on-line from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]MDL_NPP ]

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