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biota

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  • The BOREAS TE-23 team collected map plot data in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on canopy architecture and under story cover at the BOREAS tower flux sites and selected auxiliary sites from May to August 1994. Mapped plots (typical dimensions 50 m x 60 m) were set up and characterized at all BOREAS forested tower flux and selected auxiliary sites. Detailed measurement of the mapped plots included 1) stand characteristics (location, density, basal area); 2) map locations DBH of all trees; 3) detailed geometric measures of a subset of trees (height, crown dimensions); and 4) under story cover maps. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]BOREAS_TE23MAPP ]

  • This data set contains species composition, basal area, height, and crown cover of all woody plants at six sites along the Kalahari Transect visited in February-March of 2000 as part of SAFARI 2000. Similar measurements on woody and herbaceous vegetation at the Skukuza Flux Tower site in Kruger National Park, South Africa, were made in June of 2000. Leaf area index was derived from measurements made using PAR sensors at each site.Sampling protocol was the same at each site, with a slight variation at Skukuza. A grid of 42 points, 6 rows of 7 columns, each 50 m apart, was laid down in an area 300 m x 350 m for the Kalahari Transect sites. At Skukuza, the grid was 7x7, or 350 m x 350 m, centered on the tower site, yielding 49 points. At each grid point, all woody plants within a circular plot of a fixed radius were identified and measured. Stem circumference was measured on all stems and basal area per stem was derived. Basal area for the circular plots, per species, was calculated and extrapolated to hectares. Tree and stem densities were determined from the number of trees and stems in subplots and extrapolated to hectares. Woody plant height and canopy cover were determined, and aboveground woody biomass and peak leaf area index were estimated. The files are in comma-delimited ASCII format, with the first line listing the data set, author, and date, followed by the data records. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]s2k_kt_trees ]

  • The BOREAS TF-11 team collected several data sets in their efforts to fully describe the flux and site characteristics at the SSA-Fen site. This data set contains plant cover, standing crop of plant biomass, and estimated net primary productivity at each chamber site at the end of the 1994 field season. The measurements were conducted as part of a 2x2 factorial experiment in which we added carbon (300 g m-2 as wheat straw) and nitrogen (6 g m-2 as urea) to four replicate locations in the vicinity of the TF-11 tower. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]BOREAS_TF11BIOM ]

  • A global data set of root biomass, rooting profiles, and concentrations nutrients in roots was compiled from the primary literature and used to study distributions of root properties. This data set consists of estimates of fine root biomass and specific area, site characteristics, and source references associated with two papers (Jackson et al. 1996 and 1997).Understanding and predicting ecosystem functioning (e.g., carbon and water fluxes) and the role of soils in carbon storage requires an accurate assessment of plant rooting distributions. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]rootfine_biomass1997 ]

  • The gas exchange data of the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Northern Study Area (NSA) were collected to characterize diurnal gas exchange and water potential of two canopy levels of five boreal canopy cover types: young and old jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.), old aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), and lowland and upland black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill) B.S.P.). These data were collected between 27-May-1994 and 17-Sep-1994. The purpose of this study was threefold: 1) to provide in situ gas exchange data that will be used to validate models of photosynthetic responses to light, temperature, and carbon dioxide (CO2); 2) to compare the photosynthetic responses of different tree crown levels (upper and lower), and 3) to characterize the diurnal water potential curves for these sites to get an indication of the extent to which soil moisture supply to leaves might be limiting photosynthesis. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]BOREAS_TE09GXDA ]

  • The BigFoot project gathered Net Primary Production (NPP) data for nine EOS Land Validation Sites located from Alaska to Brazil from 2000 to 2004. Each site is representative of one or two distinct biomes, including the Arctic tundra; boreal evergreen needleleaf forest; temperate cropland, grassland, evergreen needleleaf forest, and deciduous broadleaf forest; desert grassland and shrubland; and tropical evergreen broadleaf forest. At this time we are archiving Northern Old Black Spruce (NOBS - BOREAS NSA, Canada) and Harvard Forest LTER (HARV - Massachusetts, USA) data collected in 2001.The NPP surfaces were produced by a spatial version of an ecosystem process model named, Biome-BGC. Inputs to the model included Landsat ETM+ derived Land Cover and LAI, tower derived meteorological variables, and a set of site-level ecophysical parameters. The model was calibrated using field measured NPP and validated by tower derived estimates of GPP. Each BigFoot NPP product covers a 7 x 7 km extent and consists of the NPP surface in ASCII Raster (BIL - Band Interleaved by Line) format (280 rows by 280 columns at 25 meter resolution) and an accompanying text file which provides metadata specific to the image (such as projection, data type, etc).Additional information on NPP surface development can be found on the BigFoot website at http://www.fsl.orst.edu/larse/bigfoot/overview.html. BigFoot Project Background: Reflectance data from MODIS, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer onboard NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite Terra (http://landval.gsfc.nasa.gov/MODIS/index.php), is used to produce several science products including land cover, leaf area index (LAI), gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP). The overall goal of the BigFoot Project was to provide validation of these products. To do this, BigFoot combined ground measurements, additional high resolution remote sensing data, and ecosystem process models at nine flux tower sites representing different biomes to evaluate the effects of the spatial and temporal patterns of ecosystem characteristics on MODIS products. BigFoot characterized up to a 7 x 7 km area (49 MODIS pixels) surrounding the CO2 flux towers located at each of the nine sites. We collected multi-year, in situ measurements of ecosystem structure and functional characteristics related to the terrestrial carbon cycle. Our sampling design allowed us to examine scales and spatial pattern of these properties, the inter-annual variability and validity of MODIS products, and provided for a field-based ecological characterization of the flux tower footprint. BigFoot was funded by NASA's Terrestrial Ecology Program.For more details on the BigFoot Project, please visit the website: http://www.fsl.orst.edu/larse/bigfoot/index.html. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]bigfoot_npp_surfaces ]

  • The BOREAS TE-22 team collected data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the forest structure of boreal vegetation in the SSA and NSA during the 1994 growing season. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]BOREAS_TE22ALLM ]

  • The NPP Database contains documented field measurements of NPP for global terrestrial sites compiled from published literature and other extant data sources. The NPP Database contains biomass dynamics, climate, and site-characteristics data georeferenced to each intensive site. A major goal of the data compilation is to use consistent and standard well-documented methods to estimate NPP from the field data. Other important components of the database include a summary, investigator contact information, and a list of key references for each site. As far as possible, the original principal investigator or his/her successor has been contacted to review the data and documentation. The NPP Database currently contains detailed data for over 60 intensive study sites. A majority of these sites are grasslands, the remainder being tropical forests, boreal forests, and tundra study sites. Some combination of above-ground annual peak live biomass data and/or seasonal biomass dynamics data are available for all sites. Many sites also have data on below-ground biomass and/or turnover. Estimates of net primary productivity are included, where available, for individual sites, and as part of the NPP Summary tables. Climate and soils data are available for all sites in varying degrees of detail. The sites have been grouped according to vegetation maps based upon Bailey ecoregions, Holdridge Life-Zones, Matthews vegetation classes, and Olson World Ecosystem Complexes. Previously compiled multi-site data sets of georeferenced NPP estimates are also provided. NPP estimates are available from a number of different collections, containing more than 1700 sites but with less information available for each individual site as compared to the intensive sites. Records for these sites typically include an NPP value, latitude and longitude, original source of the data, and sometimes information on vegetation type, management, soils, and local climate. More information on the entire Net Primary Productivity Project can be found at the NPP home page, with links to further details on individual study sites or multi-site collections. Users are encouraged to browse these Web pages to find details of original studies, methodologies, and original research contacts. NPP data are available on-line from the ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. Data Citation: Cite the data sets using the following reference format: Author, P. A., and M. B. Author. Year. Data Set Title. Available on-line from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. For example: Williamson, P., and J. Pitman. 1999. NPP Grassland: Beacon Hill, U.K. 1972-1973. Available on-line from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]NPP_LQL ]

  • The BOREAS TE-04 team collected continuous records of gas exchange under ambient conditions from intact boreal forest trees in the BOREAS NSA from 23-Jul-1996 until 14-Aug-1996. These measurements can be used to test models of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and leaf respiration, such as SiB2 (Sellers et al., 1996) or the leaf model (Collatz et al., 1991), and programs can be obtained from the investigators. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]BOREAS_TE04BBAG ]

  • The BOREAS TE-06 team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the plant biomass, allometry, biometry, sapwood, leaf area index, net primatry production, soil temperature, leaf water potential, soil CO2 flux, and multivegetation imagery of boreal vegetation. This data set includes tree measurements conducted on the above gound biomass of trees in the BOREAS NSA and SSA during the growing seasons of 1994 and 1995 and the derived allometric relationships/equations. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]BOREAS_TE6ALLOM ]

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