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Biota

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  • Description: Spatial distribution of selected demersal fish species in the German Bight. Data source: Data from environmental impact assessments (EIA) under the permit procedures of the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH) in the North Sea EEZ and research data of the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI), Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research; time period: 2000 to 2014, mainly spring and autumn data (EIA data), but also summer and winder data (AWI data) Sampling standards: Data of EIAs follow the standard investigation concept StUK 1-3 (BSH 2007), AWI data mainly collected in accordance with the ICES sampling standard (Rumohr 1999). Sampling gears: EIA-data with 7-8 m (partly 6 m) beam trawl (haul: 15 min), AWI-data with a 2-3 m beam trawl (haul: 5-15 min); trawling speed 3-4 kn, codend mesh size 10 mm Sampling: 1 haul per station and sampling date, data were recorded on board or subsamples were stored frozen for further analysis, analysis of abundance and biomass (kg wet weight) per species Data analysis: science information system of demersal fish data, examination of quality and plausibility, data harmonisation, product computation by AWI Product description: Grid: 10x10 km²; available selectable parameter: number of stations, minimum, maximum, mean, median and standard deviation of density (km-²) per species; classification method: natural jenks (Jenks Caspall algorithm); Note: The products contain a different classification of species density! Note: Please regard different value ranges! Note: Data refer exclusively to demersal fish species spectrum! Cited literature Rumohr, H. (1999). "Soft bottom macrofauna: Collection, treatment, and quality assurance of samples." ICES Techniques in Environmental Sciences, No. 27: 1-19. BSH (2007): Standard Investigation of the Impacts of Offshore Wind Turbines on the Marine Environment (StUK 3), Hamburg.

  • This product consists of global gap free Leaf area index (LAI) time series, based on MERIS full resolution Level 1B data. It is produced as a series of 10-day composites in geographic projection at 300m spatial resolution. The processing chain comprises geometric correction, radiometric correction and pixel identification, LAI calculation with the BEAM MERIS vegetation processor, re-projection to a global grid, and temporal aggregation selecting the measurement closest to the mean value. After the LAI pre-processing we applied time series analysis to fill data gaps and filter outliers using the technique of harmonic analysis in combination with mean annual and multiannual phenological data. Data gaps are caused by clouds, sensor limitations due to the solar zenith angle (less than 10 degrees), topography and intermittent data reception. We applied our technique for the whole period of observation (Jul 2002 - Mar 2012). Validation, was performed using VALERI and BigFoot data.

  • Description: Spatial distribution of selected macrozoobenthic species in the German Bight. Data source: Data from environmental impact assessments (EIA) under the permit procedures of the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH) in the North Sea EEZ and research data of the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI), Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research; time period: 1997 to 2011, mainly spring and autumn data (EIA data), but also summer and winter data (AWI data) Sampling standards: Data of EIAs follow the standard investigation concept StUK 1-3 (BSH 2007), AWI data collected in accordance with the ICES sampling standard (Rumohr 1999). Sampling gears: mainly van Veen grabs (0.1 m², 30-95 kg), few stations by box corer (0.1 m², 160 kg), Nephrops norvegicus and Goneplax rhomboides sampled by beam trawl and dredge (1-3 m width) Sampling: 1-3 replicates per station, fixation in 4 % buffered formalin seawater solution, dredge and beam-trawl data recorded on board or subsamples frozen stored, abundance and biomass (g wet weight) per species Data analysis: science information system of benthic invertebrate data, examination of quality and plausibility, data harmonisation, product computation by AWI Product description: Grid: 5x5 km² for grab data, 10x10 km² for data on N. norvegicus and G. rhomboides from beam trawl and dredge hauls; available selectable parameter: number of stations, minimum, maximum, mean, median and standard deviation of density (m-²) per species; classification method: natural jenks (Jenks Caspall algorithm), Note: The products contain a different classification of species density! Note: Please regard different value ranges! Rumohr, H. (1999). "Soft bottom macrofauna: Collection, treatment, and quality assurance of samples." ICES Techniques in Environmental Sciences, No. 27: 1-19. BSH (2007): Standard "Investigation of the Impacts of Offshore Wind Turbines on the Marine Environment (StUK 3)", Hamburg.

  • In this service, information on underwater obstacles is presented, which is stored in the "Deutsches Unterwasserhindernisauskunftssystem" (DUWHAS) of the BSH. The data are displayed according to the symbolisation of CONTIS.

  • The density classes of harbour porpoises are shown seasonally in a grid of 6 minutes of latitude x 10 minutes of longitude.

  • In this service, information on underwater obstacles is presented, which is available in the "Deutsches Unterwasserhindernisauskunftssystem" (DUWHAS) of the BSH. The data are displayed according to the symbolisation of the international nautical charts (INT 1).

  • A major aspect of the ground data collection effort in the SNF during the summers of 1983 and 1984 was the acquisition of helicopter canopy reflectance measurements. Canopy measurements were made at numerous sites with a helicopter-mounted Barnes multiband radiometer (MMR). MMR data were collected on ten dates in 1983 and eight dates in 1984. An additional Barnes radiometer was used to make simultaneous reference panel measurements. The canopy reflectance was derived from the canopy and reference panel measurements. All canopy and reference panel measurements were made under clear sky conditions. A majority of the helicopter measurements were taken at nadir view, although some off-nadir view angle measurements were taken primarily over black spruce and aspen sites. The reflectance factor is the ratio of radiant flux of the canopy measurement to that of the reference or calibration panel. Another component to be considered is atmospheric scatter, especially for aircraft measurements taken at higher altitudes. The amount of atmospheric scattering can be determined by using reflectance measurements of water targets. Reflectance measurements over water targets are included for all acquisitions in 1983. No water target measurements were taken during the 1984 field campaign. The summarized MMR data for both years, 1983 and 1984, are included in this data set. Fields include site ID number, number of observations averaged, code for altitude of instrument above the canopy, the time at which observations begin, the time at which observations end, sun zenith angle, sun azimuth angle, and reflectance for each of the bands (with standard deviations included within parenthesis). All measurements were taken at nadir, except where otherwise indicated. In 1984, MMR data were collected using off nadir view angles to measure the bi-directional reflectance characteristics of the forests. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]SNF_HELO_MMR ]

  • Knowledge of the optical properties of the components of the forest canopy is important to the understanding of how plants interact with their environment and how this information may be used to determine vegetation characteristics using remote sensing. During the summers of 1983 and 1984, samples of the major components of the boreal forest canopy (needles, leaves, branches, moss, litter) were collected in the Superior National Forest (SNF) of Minnesota and sent to the Johnson Space Center (JSC). At JSC, the spectral reflectance and transmittance characteristics of the samples were determined for wavelengths between .35 and 2.1 micrometers using the Cary-14 radiometer. This report presents plots of these data as well as averages to the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) bands. There were two main thrusts to the SNF optical properties study. The first was to collect the optical properties of many of the components of the boreal forest canopy. The second goal of the study was to investigate the variability of optical properties within a species. The results of these studies allow a comparison of the optical properties of a variety of different species and a measure of the variability within species. These data provide basic information necessary to model canopy reflectance patterns. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]SNF_LEAFCARY ]

  • The data set consists of a subset for the study area of the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) in South America (i.e., longitude 85 deg to 30 deg W, latitude 25 deg S to 10 deg N) of the 5-min resolution Global Potential Vegetation data set developed by Navin Ramankutty and Jon Foley at the University of Wisconsin. Data are available in both ASCII GRID and binary image file formats.The original map was derived at a 5-min resolution and contains natural vegetation classified into 15 types. This data set is derived mainly from the DISCover land cover data set, with the regions dominated by land use filled using the vegetation data set of Haxeltine and Prentice (1996). The data set represents the world's potential vegetation (i.e., vegetation that would most likely exist now in the absence of human activities), and not necessarily natural pre-settlement vegetation. This is because human activities such as fire suppression have mo dified the stages of succession at which vegetation communities exist.More information can be found at: ftp://daac.ornl.gov/data/lba/land_use_change/potential_vegetation/comp/README/ [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]lba_pot_vege ]

  • The BOREAS TE-20 team collected several data sets for use in developing and testing models of forest ecosystem dynamics. This data set contains measurements of site characteristics conducted in the SSA from 18-Jul-1994 to 30-Jul-1994. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]BOREAS_TE20SITE ]

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