These DEMs were produced from digitized contours at a cell resolution of 100 meters. Vector contours of the area were used as input to a software package that interpolates between contours to create a DEM representing the terrain surface. The vector contours had a contour interval of 25 feet. The data cover the BOREAS MSAs of the SSA and NSA and are given in a UTM map projection. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]BOREAS_H8UTMDEM ]
This data set consists of a southern African subset of the Global Land One-Kilometer Base Elevation (GLOBE) digital elevation model (DEM) data in both ASCII GRID and binary image file formats. The Global Land One-Kilometer Base Elevation (GLOBE) digital elevation model (DEM) is a global data set with horizontal grid spacing of 30 arc-seconds (0.008333... degrees) in latitude and longitude, resulting in dimensions of 21,600 rows and 43,200 columns. At the Equator a degree of latitude is about 111 kilometers. GLOBE has 120 values per degree, giving GLOBE slightly better than 1-km gridding at the Equator, with progressively finer gridding longitudinally toward the Poles. The horizontal coordinate system is seconds of latitude and longitude referenced to World Geodetic System 84 (WGS84). The vertical units represent elevation in meters above Mean Sea Level. The elevation values range from -407 to 8,752 meters on land. In GLOBE Version 1.0, ocean areas have been masked as no data and have been assigned a value of -500. Because of the nature of the raster structure of the DEM, small islands in the ocean less than approximately 1 square kilometer (specifically, those that are not characterized by at least one 30 grid cell and/or do not have coastlines digitized into Digital Chart of the World or World Vector Shoreline) may not be represented. More information about the procedure used to create the southern African subset is described in the accompanying file ftp://daac.ornl.gov/data/safari2k/almanac/globe_dem/comp/so_africa_dem_readme.pdf. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]s2k_globe_dem ]
The reference layer is for the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation 1 arc second (30 meter) dataset. SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was assigned to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. NGA applied several post-processing "finishing" steps to these data including editing, spike and well removal, water body leveling and coastline definition. [Summary provided by the USGS.] [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]USGS_SRTM_Elev_1arcsec_Index ]
The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, DTS-99) from February 11 to 22, 2000 was an US-German-Italian effort to produce a first global digital elevation model (DEM). The German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) complemented the US C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) payload of NASA/JPL with an additional X-SAR instrument. The SRTM X-SAR DEM was generated at DLR from this instrument’s data using radar interferometry technique. The data was acquired simultaneously from aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor employing two SAR antennas, one inside the Space Shuttle’s cargo bay, the other at the end of a 60 m extension pole. A substantial portion of the global land surface between 60° northern and 58° southern latitude was covered. As the orbit flown and imaging period of the SRTM mission had been optimized for the US C-band system, the German-Italian X-SAR with narrower aperture angle imaged data only along roughly 50 km wide orbital ground traces. Therefore, the dataset available shows a grid-like coverage. The original SRTM X-SAR DTED DEMs have been merged to 10° by 10° tiles, converted to GeoTIFF format and packaged into zip-archives. Each zip-file contains the DEM dataset, the corresponding height error map (HEM), a quicklook png-image, a kml-overlay and a readme document. The filename of the zip-archive specifies the bottom left coordinate of each tile. The zip-archives can be downloaded via the EOC Download Service. For more information see: https://geoservice.dlr.de/resources/licenses/srtm_xsar/DLR_SRTM_XSAR_ReadMe.pdf
The SRTM X-SAR Error Mosaic is based on the height error map (HEM, see SRTM PDF http://www.dlr.de/eoc/Portaldata/60/Resources/dokumente/7_sat_miss/SRTM-XSAR-DEM-DTED-1.1.pdf) and provides a local measure of the achieved accuracy. It is statistically determined from a neighborhood of image cells mainly considering the phase and baseline stability. Thus it describes the precision relative to the surrounding. The determination of the absolute accuracy requires the consideration of reference measures.
The SRTM X-SAR Hillshade Mosaic is a greyscale shaded relief based on the SRTM X-SAR Elevation Mosaic. Combined with the latter, it can be used to add a 3d effect and enhance the visual resolution by pronouncing peaks and valleys.
Die HFP sind in der Örtlichkeit dauerhaft durch Marken aus Metall ( Höhenbolzen ) i.d.R. an Bauwerken, im Fels oder an besonderen Punktträgern vermarkt. Grundsätzlich sind deren Höhen und ggfs. die Koordinaten und Schwerewerte bestimmt. Z. Zt. werden die HFP noch ausschließlich durch geometrisches Nivellement, in Form eines geschlossenen Nivellementweges (Schleife), der auch aus mehreren netzbildenden Linien bestehen kann, bestimmt. Deshalb spricht man auch von Nivellementpunkten (NivP). Der Nachweis der HFP umfasst: - Punktdaten in Form von Höhen-, Schwerewerte und Lagekoordinaten - Punktbeschreibungen (Einmessungsskizzen) - Punktübersichten auf der Grundlage der Topographischen Karte 1:25000 (TK 25) mit Punktsignaturen und -nummern
The Vegetation/Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project (VEMAP) is an ongoing multiinstitutional, international effort addressing the response of biogeography and biogeochemistry to environmental variability in climate and other drivers in both space and time domains. The objectives of VEMAP are the intercomparison of biogeochemistry models and vegetationtype distribution models (biogeography models) and determination of their sensitivity to changing climate, elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, and other sources of altered forcing. The VEMAP data set includes three georeferencing and three cell area variables. Data Citation: This data set should be cited as follows: Kittel, T. G. F., N. A. Rosenbloom, T. H. Painter, D. S. Schimel, H. H. Fisher, A. Grimsdell, VEMAP Participants, C. Daly, and E. R. Hunt, Jr. 2002. VEMAP Phase I Database, revised. Available on-line from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]VEMAP_1_GEOREF ]
The SRTM X-SAR Elevation Mosaic is an aggregation of DLR's SRTM X-SAR DTED files. The DTED Level-2 files have been generated from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data acquired by the German-Italian X-band interferometric SAR system during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) between February 11 and 22, 2000. The X-band system was flown and operated onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor, along with a NASA C-Band SAR system. The SRTM project page at DLR provides additional information on the SRTM X-band mission ( http://www.dlr.de/eoc/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-5515/9214_read-17716/ ). Further details on the mission in general, the technology, accuracies, and applications are available in http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm/SRTM_paper.pdf . The original DTED files have been grouped and mosaicked into 30 x 30 degree tiles. Six out of the total of 48 tiles were empty since they do not contain any DTED files. The resulting 42 tiles are stored as uncompressed GeoTIFF files. The files have been supplemented with nine cubic convolution resampled overviews for fast web delivery.
This data set was prepared by BORIS staff by reformatting the original data into the ARC/INFO Generate format. The original data were received in SIF at a scale of 1:50,000. BORIS staff could not find a format document or commercial software for reading SIF; the BOREAS HYD-08 team provided some C source code that could read some of the SIF files. The data cover the BOREAS NSA and SSA. The original data were compiled from information available in the 1970s and 1980s. [ This document was provided by NASA's Global Change Master Directory. For more information on the source of this metadata please visit http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/geoss/[GCMD]BOREAS_ELEV_ARC ]
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