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  • The Copernicus DEM is a Digital Surface Model (DSM) which represents the surface of the Earth including buildings, infrastructure and vegetation. The original GLO-30 provides worldwide coverage at 30 meters (refers to 10 arc seconds). Note that ocean areas do not have tiles, there one can assume height values equal to zero. Data is provided as Cloud Optimized GeoTIFFs. Note that the vertical unit for measurement of elevation height is meters. The Copernicus DEM for Europe at 1000 meter resolution (EU-LAEA projection) in COG format has been derived from the Copernicus DEM GLO-30, mirrored on Open Data on AWS, dataset managed by Sinergise (https://registry.opendata.aws/copernicus-dem/). Processing steps: The original Copernicus GLO-30 DEM contains a relevant percentage of tiles with non-square pixels. We created a mosaic map in https://gdal.org/drivers/raster/vrt.html format and defined within the VRT file the rule to apply cubic resampling while reading the data, i.e. importing them into GRASS GIS for further processing. We chose cubic instead of bilinear resampling since the height-width ratio of non-square pixels is up to 1:5. Hence, artefacts between adjacent tiles in rugged terrain could be minimized: gdalbuildvrt -input_file_list list_geotiffs_MOOD.csv -r cubic -tr 0.000277777777777778 0.000277777777777778 Copernicus_DSM_30m_MOOD.vrt In order to reproject the data to EU-LAEA projection while reducing the spatial resolution to 1000 m, bilinear resampling was performed in GRASS GIS (using r.proj) and the pixel values were scaled with 1000 (storing the pixels as Integer values) for data volume reduction. In addition, a hillshade raster map was derived from the resampled elevation map (using r.relief, GRASS GIS). Eventually, we exported the elevation and hillshade raster maps in Cloud Optimized GeoTIFF (COG) format, along with SLD and QML style files.

  • The Weser estuary at the German North Sea coast serves as a fairway to the harbours of Bremerhaven and Bremen. To ensure safe shipping and navigation, the navigation channel depths are nowadays intensively monitored, and have been so in the past. These are valuable data for consulting and research purposes, and enables investigations leading to a better understanding of hydrodynamics, salt intrusion and morphological processes in the estuary, in the present as well as the past. For recent years, thanks to modern monitoring techniques and digitalization, measuring data has been compiled to consistent digital terrain models of high quality and accuracy. For time periods before the 1990ies however, measurements were scarcer and the data are available only in form of printed bathymetrical and nautical charts. The objective of the project “Historical system states of the Weser estuary (HIWEST)” was to: • digitalize depths measurements starting from 1960, • georeference the data points and • process and compile them to digital terrain models that can be used for research and consulting. The project was led and financed by the Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute (BAW). It was supported by the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH) and by the German Water and Shipping Administration (WSV) who provided printed charts and scanned data sets. The smile consulting GmbH was contracted to process the data and compile digital terrain models. One of the main challenges of the project was georeferencing. While georeferencing and projecting in the horizontal domain was comparatively straightforward, the transformation of depths below different chart datums to the Germans mean height reference system represented a challenge. This was accomplished by an algorithm considering spatial polygons provided by BSH and further meta information on the different levelling systems. The accuracy of the data sets differs depending on the quality of the original data. Since the 1990ies, powerful measurement methods such as airborne laser scanning (ALS) and multibeam echo-sounding has led to high resolutions and high data accuracy. In past surveys, the depths were measured in single-beam echo-soundings, often along individual cross sections, and there is no information between these soundings. As a result, the older terrain models are much smoother then the newer ones and contain less detailed information. More technical details can be found in the appendix of the technical report. The following digital terrain models (DTM, in the following the German abbreviation DGM is used) of the Lower and Outer Weser estuary were made available: • DGM 1966, marking the situation before deepening the Outer Weser to SKN-12 m</li> • DGM 1972, marking the situation before deepening the Lower Weser to SKN-9 m</li> • DGM 1981, marking the situation before extensive river works in the Lower Weser</li> • DGM 1996, marking the situation before deepening the Outer Weser to SKN-14 m</li> • DGM 2002, marking the situation after deepening the Outer Weser to SKN-14 m, reference digital terrain model. The years were chosen so they would represent consistent periods not affected by constructive engineering measures such as channel deepenings, and secondly based on optimal data availability. Each data set however consists not only of data from the respective year, but data had to be added from adjacent years. To close gaps, data from recent surveys were used. The data sets span the whole estuary from the North Sea to the tidal weir in the city of Bremen and are available as 1x1 m raster data sets. How to cite the HIWEST data: <strong style="color: red;"> The data set is only to be quoted together with the Technical Report.</strong> Report: Bundesanstalt für Wasserbau (2021): Historical digital terrain models of the Weser Estuary (HIWEST). Technical Report B3955.02.04.70168-6. Bundesanstalt für Wasserbau. https://henry.baw.de/handle/20.500.11970/107521 Data set: Bundesanstalt für Wasserbau (2020): Historical digital terrain model data of the Weser Estuary (HIWEST) [Data set]. Bundesanstalt für Wasserbau. https://doi.org/10.48437/02.2020.K2.5200.0001

  • Die HFP sind in der Örtlichkeit dauerhaft durch Marken aus Metall ( Höhenbolzen ) i.d.R. an Bauwerken, im Fels oder an besonderen Punktträgern vermarkt. Grundsätzlich sind deren Höhen und ggfs. die Koordinaten und Schwerewerte bestimmt. Z. Zt. werden die HFP noch ausschließlich durch geometrisches Nivellement, in Form eines geschlossenen Nivellementweges (Schleife), der auch aus mehreren netzbildenden Linien bestehen kann, bestimmt. Deshalb spricht man auch von Nivellementpunkten (NivP). Der Nachweis der HFP umfasst: - Punktdaten in Form von Höhen-, Schwerewerte und Lagekoordinaten - Punktbeschreibungen (Einmessungsskizzen) - Punktübersichten auf der Grundlage der Topographischen Karte 1:25000 (TK 25) mit Punktsignaturen und -nummern

  • The TanDEM-X PolarDEM is a project developed by the German Remote Sensing Data Center (DFD) at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) within the activities of the TanDEM-X mission. It is a framework for the provision of derivatives of the global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the TanDEM-X mission for Polar Regions. The TanDEM-X PolarDEM 90m of Antarctica is a gap-free and edited version of the TanDEM-X 90m digital elevation model (DEM). The TanDEM-X PolarDEM 90m of Antarctica is provided in Antarctic Polar Stereographic projection (EPSG:3031) with a pixel spacing of 90 meters. The DEM elevation values represent ellipsoidal heights relative to the WGS84 ellipsoid. The majority of the data were acquired between April 2013 and October 2014. The TanDEM-X PolarDEM 90m of Antarctica is split into four tiles. For more information concerning the TanDEM-X PolarDEM, the reader is referred to: https://www.dlr.de/eoc/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-11882/20871_read-66374/

  • Die Höhenfolie beschreibt das Gelände mittels Höhenlinien.

  • TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurements) is an Earth observation radar mission that consists of a SAR interferometer built by two almost identical satellites flying in close formation. With a typical separation between the satellites of 120m to 500m a global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) has been generated. The main objective of the TanDEM-X mission is to create a precise 3D map of the Earth's land surfaces that is homogeneous in quality and unprecedented in accuracy. The data acquisition was completed in 2015 and production of the global DEM was completed in September 2016. The absolute height error is with about 1m an order of magnitude below the 10m requirement. The TanDEM-X 90m DEM is a product variant of the global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) acquired in the frame of the German TanDEM-X mission between 2010 and 2015, and has a reduced pixel spacing of 3 arcseconds (90m at the equator). It covers all Earth’s landmasses from pole to pole. For more information concerning the TanDEM-X 90m DEM, the reader is referred to: https://tandemx-90m.dlr.de/ For more information concerning the TanDEM-X mission, the reader is referred to: https://www.dlr.de/dlr/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-10378/

  • The Copernicus DEM is a Digital Surface Model (DSM) which represents the surface of the Earth including buildings, infrastructure and vegetation. The original GLO-30 provides worldwide coverage at 30 meters (refers to 10 arc seconds). Note that ocean areas do not have tiles, there one can assume height values equal to zero. Data is provided as Cloud Optimized GeoTIFFs. Note that the vertical unit for measurement of elevation height is meters. The Copernicus DEM for Europe at 3 arcsec (0:00:03 = 0.00083333333 ~ 90 meter) in COG format has been derived from the Copernicus DEM GLO-30, mirrored on Open Data on AWS, dataset managed by Sinergise (https://registry.opendata.aws/copernicus-dem/). Processing steps: The original Copernicus GLO-30 DEM contains a relevant percentage of tiles with non-square pixels. We created a mosaic map in https://gdal.org/drivers/raster/vrt.html format and defined within the VRT file the rule to apply cubic resampling while reading the data, i.e. importing them into GRASS GIS for further processing. We chose cubic instead of bilinear resampling since the height-width ratio of non-square pixels is up to 1:5. Hence, artefacts between adjacent tiles in rugged terrain could be minimized: gdalbuildvrt -input_file_list list_geotiffs_MOOD.csv -r cubic -tr 0.000277777777777778 0.000277777777777778 Copernicus_DSM_30m_MOOD.vrt In order to reduce the spatial resolution to 3 arc seconds, weighted resampling was performed in GRASS GIS (using r.resamp.stats -w) and the pixel values were scaled with 1000 (storing the pixels as integer values) for data volume reduction. In addition, a hillshade raster map was derived from the resampled elevation map (using r.relief, GRASS GIS). Eventually, we exported the elevation and hillshade raster maps in Cloud Optimized GeoTIFF (COG) format, along with SLD and QML style files.

  • INSPIRE theme Elevation (depth contours). It contains the depth contour of hydrographic surveying.

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