The General Global Map of Seafloor Bedrock Geology (seafloorgeol) shows the global distribution of seafloor bedrock, the boundaries of the continental shelf and continental slope, the axes of the oceanic ridges and other marine geological features. Sedimentary deposits are not shown. The map is based on extracts from Bouysse et al. (2010) © CGMW, and Bryan & Ernst (2008) using Esri Basemap, HERE, Garmin, FAO, NOAA, USGS, © OpenStreetMap contributors and the GIS User Community.
The cruise leg MSM09/3 was conducted as a cooperative project between the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Resources (BGR), the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) and Dalhousie University. The data format is Society of Exploration Geophysicists SEG Y. A geophysical survey covered areas of Baffin Bay and Davis Strait between Greenland and the Canadian Baffin Island. A component of the IPY 2007/08 Lead Project Plate Tectonics and Polar Gateways in the Earth System (PLATES & GATES), this project DAVIS GATE is aimed to develop a tectonic and sedimentary reconstruction of the opening process of this oceanic gateway. Baffin Bay and Davis Strait play an important role in the shallow water exchange from the Arctic to the Atlantic Ocean. The plate-tectonic evolution as well as the magmatic history of this region has been sparsely known and required a careful geophysical investigation in order to construct a set of gridded detailed paleotopographic maps for a complete geodynamic reconstruction of this gateway. With a set of three seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles, using ocean-bottom seismometers on 62 stations, as well as multi-channel reflection seismic recordings with a 3000-m long streamer, data were acquired from the sedimentary cover to the deep crust and even from parts of the uppermost mantle. Additional seismic data supplement these profiles and provide insights into the structures of the basement and dominant fault zones such as the Ungava fault system. A parallel running magnetic survey aimed to resolve the temporal evolution of the oceanic crust of Baffin Bay. The extension and subsidence of the continental and transitional crust in the Davis Strait and the evolution of oceanic crust in the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay could be investigated with dataset to which continuously recorded gravity anomaly data and sub-bottom profiler data also contribute. This dataset provides the basis of geometrical and physical properties of the crust required for a realistic geodynamic model which will describe the break-up and the ocean basin evolution between Greenland and Canada in terms of detailed paleo-topography.
During the cruise with S.V. EXPLORA within the Ross Sea on the second marine-geophysical expedition of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) to Antarctica, in total 6,745 km of magnetic, gravity and digital reflection seismic lines and additionally 1,400 km gravity lines were acquired in the period from January 10th to March 2nd 1980. On 43 stations sonobuoy refraction measurements have been carried out. The main results are: (1) In the eastern part of the Ross Sea Shelf two striking discontinuities have been identified in the reflection seismics representing gaps in the sediments at the turn-over of the Upper Miocene to the Pliocene (ca. 7 mio years B.P.) and between the Middle and Upper Miocene (ca. 11.5 mio. years B.P.) according to results of DSDP boreholes. (2) In the southern part of the Ross Sea Shelf the basement is uncovered at depths over 700m due to a thrust of the shelf ice recently. (3) A structural unit extends alongside the meridian of 180° separating the Ross Sea into two different geologic regions. This unit is characterised by two basement highs with seismic velocities exceeding 5 km/sec. (4) In relation with the GANOVEX expedition two profiles have been measured off northern Victoria Land which indicate two large faults with a faulting amount of 2 km. Another area is characterised by intrusive and volcanic bodies.
Main target of the project GIGICS (Cooperative German-Indonesian Geoscientific Investigations in the Celebes Sea) is the investigation of the internal crustal structure and the plate tectonic evolution of the Celebes Sea and its active continental margins off Mindanao and Northern Sulawesi. These investigations were carried out during the cruise SO98 of RV SONNE by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Hannover; the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), Potsdam; the GEOMAR, Kiel; the Institute of Oceanography (IfM), Hamburg; the Mines and Geoscience Bureau, Manila; the Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, Jakarta, and the Institute of Oceanography, Wormley. The cruise SO98 consisted of three legs of two weeks duration and one leg of four weeks duration. The total amount of data acquired during the cruise were: - 3,300 km of multichannel reflection seismics, - over 6,800 km of gravimetric and magnetic data and approximately 10.000 km of swath bathymetric and sediment echosounder data, - 3 wideangle-/refractionseismic profiles, each of 120 - 150 km length, - geological, geochemical sampling and oceanographical measurements at a total of 37 stations. During the cruise SO98 a widespaced but regular grid of magnetic and gravimetric profiles were acquired in the eastern part of the Celebes Sea from which up to then reliable data were very sparse. WEISSEL (1980) recognized in the western Celebes Sea WSW-ENE striking magnetic lineations, which he interpreted as chrons 18 - 20 (39 - 43 Ma according to the timescale of HARLAND et al. (1990)). The data from cruise SO98 show that there is no continuation of these anomalies to the east. In the eastern part the magnetic field of the Celebes Sea is less clear and much more disturbed. Nevertheless, E-W-striking anomalies are recognizable. Because amplitudes of local magnetic anomalies are higher than the lineations, the correlation of these lineations with the magnetic reversal scale is still somewhat ambiguous. The gravity map compiled from the measured gravimetric data shows elongated positive anomalies in the eastern part of the Celebes Sea. Exceptions occur at the deep sea trenches off North Sulawesi (North Sulawesi Trench) and Mindanao (Cotabatu Trench) and at the Sulu Archipelago where strong negative gravity anomalies were found. A remarkable NW-striking gravity high of up to 60 mgal was found in the central eastern part of the Celebes Sea. Gravimetric modelling suggests that this high can be correlated with the gravimetric effect of the Molucca Sea Plate subducting from the east under the Sangihe Arc. The reflection seismic data from the northern part of the Celebes Sea show indications for a juvenile subduction of oceanic Celebes Sea crust under the Sulu Archipelago. The oceanic crust bends down towards the Sulu Arc with angles between 2° and 5° and the sedimentary sequence above is deformed indicating a compressional stress regime. With the exception of two linear arranged seamount-like basement highs the Celebes Sea is dominated by two different oceanic crustal types showing distinct differences in the topography. The first one is showing a very similar reflection seismic pattern as it is found for oceanic crust of the Atlantic (HINZ et al., 1994). This type is characterized by a small-scale block-faulted relief of the top basement and a low reflectivity in lower crustal levels typically related as to be accreted at slow to intermediate spreading ridges. This type is found in the western, northern and southern part of the investigated area. In the eastern and especially in the southeastern part the igneous crust shows a very different image. The reflection of the top of the basement is less distinct and of lower frequency. The relief is very much smoother than in the previous type. This reflection seismic image indicates a volcanic/magmatic overprinting of the oceanic crust in this part of the Celebes Sea. Another target of cruise SO98 was the area of the active continental margin off North Sulawesi and its accretionary complex. The internal structure of the accretionary complex should be investigated to decide whether this active margin is also of the 'splinter-type' or not. During former geophysical cruises with RV SONNE oceanic crustal splinters were discovered in the accretionary wedges of the Sulu Sea and off Costa Rica (e.g. HINZ et al., 1991). From our reflection seismic measurements this active continental margin is morphologically subdivided into three units and consists of two accretionary complexes of different internal structural style: the lower and middle continental slope is underlain by an intensively thrusted, sedimentary accretionary wedge. This wedge was most probably formed during the last 5 Ma. Landward of this wedge an older and seismically very complex accretionary unit is present which is overlain at its landward termination by a sedimentary fore-arc basin. Within this older accretionary complex, units with a strong, low frequency reflection pattern were found which are interpreted to represent crustal splinters of igneous oceanic or ophiolitic nature. This interpretation is supported by our gravity and magnetic data. The magnetic profiles show an increase of the magnetic field towards the north arm of Sulawesi across the continental margin. This increase of the magnetic field suggests an increase of magnetized material within the older accretionary wedge towards the northern arm of Sulawesi where ophiolites are emplaced. During the interpretation of the reflection seismic data of the project GIGICS BSR's (bottom simulating reflectors) were discovered for the first time along the active continental margin of North-Sulawesi. BSR's are the seismic expression of a velocity decrease at the bottom of a gas hydrate zone. The distribution and depth of the BSR's correlates with the geochemical and geothermal results. Radiometric age dating and geochemical analyses from pillow basalts of a seamount from the southeastern Celebes Sea indicate hot-spot activity in this part of the Celebes Sea during or shortly after the formation of the oceanic crust approximately at 43 Ma ago. Three NW-striking ridges or seamount-chains in the northeastern Celebes Sea were mapped and investigated in detail. They are thought to represent a wrench fault system extending through the northeastern Celebes Sea. At the flank of one of these ridges a strongly alterated plagioclase-olivine basalt sample was dredged which was overlain by non-fossiliferous clay stone. A similar lithostratigraphic sequence was drilled during ODP leg 124 (RANGIN et al., 1990). The geochemical composition of these basalts is different from typical MORB. The existence of a large crustal splinter within the accretionary wedge off southwestern Mindanao obviously is responsible for a high thermal conductivity which in turn could have enhanced heat flow (108.1 mW/m2) and methanogenesis (405 ppb). The heat flow of 103.0 mW/m2 at the deformation front of the Mindanao wedge and the high methane concentration of 5.555 ppb suggests tectonically induced fluid transport within the wedge. High methane concentrations between 8.044 and 49.006 ppb at the lower slope off Sulawesi and in the North Sulawesi Trench are accompanied by high heat flow values of up to 100.5 mW/m2. Heat flow is significantly lower upslope (31.3 mW/m2). This general heat flow distribution pattern is seen over a large portion of the accretionary wedge. The elevated heat flow values and high methane concentrations near the deformation front most likely result from heat transport by fluids squeezed out from vertically and laterally compacting sediments. The reduced heat flow towards the coast is compatible either with a cooling effect of slow subduction of the oceanic crust, or stacking of cool slabs of compacted sediments. A subduction of oceanic crust with a heat flow around 60 mW/m2 over a period of more than 3 million years would have produced the low heat flow values of the upper slope if the wedge consists of claystone with a low thermal conductivity (1.2 - 1.7 W/mK). Even in the low-heat flow area isolated fluid venting is possible. Lateral variations in the heat flow pattern (e.g. broadening of the anomalies in the west) may be due to different thermal regimes within the subducted crust.
The Sonne Cruise SO122 was carried out by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR, Hannover) from 3rd August to 9th September 1997, in cooperation with GEOMAR (Kiel), the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO, Karachi) and the Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan (HDIP). During the joint project with R/V SONNE the Makran accretionary wedge off Pakistan should have been investigated in detail with multi-channel reflection seismics, magnetics and gravimetry. Intense fishery offshore Pakistan forced a change of the area of investigation to the south with the following objectives: investigation of the crustal structure and occurrence of the bottom simulating reflector (BSR) in the Makran accretionary wedge; investigation of the structure of the Murray Ridge System in order to reconstruct the geodynamic evolution of the eastern Indian Plate margin; determination of the origin of the crust underlying the Indus Fan and reconnaissance of the sedimentary history of the Indus Fan in order to reveal the uplift and erosion history of the Himalayas.
Results of side-scan sonar mapping within the framework of the German Coastal Engineering Research Council project AufMod (¿Aufbau integrierter Modellsysteme zur Analyse der langfristigen Morphodynamik in der Deutschen Bucht¿ [¿Development of integrated model systems for the analysis of long-term morphodynamics in the German Bight¿], 01.11.2009-31.12.2012): -survey lines of side-scan sonar surveys -grab stations for ground truthing -sediment maps For more information, please visit: https://data.bsh.de/SpatialData/Main/Aufmod_Study_Areas/Information_Meeresgeologische_Fokusgebiete_(Projekt_AufMod)_DE.pdf
The CINCA marine geoscience investigations on the convergent continental margin of Chile between 19°S and 33°30'S were accomplished during three legs of RV SONNE cruise SO-104, from 22. July to 15. October 1995. The objectives of the first leg are to contribute to an understanding of the geological architecture and of the tectonic mechanism in the area of the Chile convergent zone through a geophysical assessment of the tectonic structures of the Chile continental margin and the adjacent oceanic Nazca plate. During the first leg from 22. July to 24. August 1995 multichannel seismic reflection data with BGR's new digital streamer were collected along a systematic grid with a total traverse length of 4,494 km simultaneously with the acquisition of magnetic, gravimetric, Hydrosweep and Parasound data over a total traverse length of 7,012 km. GFZ's mobile land array of 12 seismic stations recorded the air gun shots fired by RV SONNE within the CINCA area. Three seismic lines were surveyed between 32°30'S and 33°30'S in the area of the CONDOR project. Here, the surface of the downbending oceanic crust is smooth. The 5,000 m to 6,000 m deep trench floor is underlain by sediments, in excess 2,500 m thick. The inner trench slope consists of a landward thickening accretionary wedge which terminates against a body forming the base of a fore arc basin near Valparaiso. The principal area of the CINCA project extends between 19°S and 26°S and comprises the convergent continental margin, the Peru-Chile trench and the seaward adjacent part of the Nazca plate up to approximately 75°W longitude. The tectonic regime of these units of the CINCA area is very different from the tectonic system of the respective units of the CONDOR area. The Eocene-aged and sediment-starved oceanic crust of the Nazca plate becomes blockfaulted when approaching the outer trench slope break. The 50 km to 70 km wide outer trench slope is characterized by a complex system of horst and graben structures in the CINCA area probably resulting from the strong downbending. Steep fault scarps forming the flanks of the horsts reach vertical offsets varying between few hundreds of metres to 1,000 m, and locally even more. The 7,000 m to 8,l00 m deep trench is very narrow and mostly sediment-starved in the CINCA area. Morphology and architecture of the continental margin of the CINCA area are controlled by planar and listric faulting and tilted blocks of inferred continental nature, which apparently slid down into the trench. The inferred continental blocks, overlying a reflective mass, are covered by sediments of presumably turbiditic nature. An accretionary wedge is difficult to define on the seismic single channel records from the CINCA area. However, processed seismic data show a deep reflective mass underlying the downfaulted blocks of inferred continental nature. This deep reflective mass is interpreted to consist of a tectonically eroded and underplated continental crust-basalt melange forming the transition between the downfaulted continental upper plate and the subducting oceanic lower plate. Complex structural highs of still unknown origin and nature have been observed on the upper continental slope at 20°S, 24°S and 25°S. The northernmost structural high represents the seaward termination of the Iquique fore arc basin. The accuracy of the acquired gravity and bathymetric data is very good, i.e. better than 1 mGal and less than 10 m. The Chile trench is associated with strong negative gravity anomalies, and the continental margin is characterized by several positive and negative gravity anomalies of varying size and amount. The first results of magnetic modeling show, that the intensive blockfaulting of the oceanic crust across the outer trench slope causes no loss of the magnetization of the oceanic crust. The air gun shots fired by RV SONNE in 50 m intervals along 17 seismic traverses were recorded by GFZ's mobile land array in the coastal area of Chile. Good quality data were obtained out to about 100 km distance and in some cases even out to about 150 km.
In September 1993, the Federal Institute for Geoscience and Natural Resources (BGR) has carried out in cooperation with Sevmorneftegeofizika (SMNG), Murmansk a 2D-seismic survey of the eastern part of the Laptev Sea shelf. The data format is Society of Exploration Geophysicists SEG Y. During the survey with a total length of 3189 km the 70 km wide New Siberian Basin and two other basins were mapped. In the central part of the New Siberian Basin, a Tertiary sediment thickness of more than 4 km overlying older sediments was observed. Further to the east, a large area covered by lava flows of unknown thickness was investigated. There are no indications of a propagation of real seafloor spreading into the Laptev Shelf and thus the Asian continental crust. Therefore seafloor spreading seems impossible at total spreading rates below 0.7 cm/year, at least for crust of the character which is present here.
A geophysical reconnaissance survey was carried out in the Labrador Sea and Davis Strait between July and September 1977 by BGR. The data format is Society of Exploration Geophysicists SEG Y. The survey was executed on the research vessel MS Explora. The seismic, magnetic and gravity data from 5931 line-kilometers on 21 lines were recorded on magnetic tape. A 24-fold coverage technique was used with 48 seismic channels (traces), with a 2400m streamer cable, and 23.45 l airgun array. A full integrated computerized satellite navigation system (INDAS III) served as positioning system. Based on a preliminary interpretation of the seismograms, the Labrador Sea was devided into an eastern (Greenland) and western (Canadian) area, seperated by the Mid Labrador Ridge. Within the eastern part of the Labrador Sea the Pre-Cenozoic sediments show three distinct layers, traceable over the entire Greenland area of the sea. In the Cenozoic layer olisthostromes occur. The highest apparent velocity determined from sonobuoy data was 9.26 km/sec. The calculated refractor lies at a depth of approximately 13 km. The seismic section from the sediments on the Canadian side of the Labrador Sea show a uniform series of thick sediments below the Cenozoic cover. The highly disturbed basement is often masked by the multiple reflections from the seafloor. Statements about the nature and structure of the basement can only be made after processing data.
On the MS Explora (1st September, 1976 - 29th September, 1976) multichannel seismic measurements were carried out on 44 lines The area covered was the Barentssea. The data format is Society of Exploration Geophysicists SEG Y.
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