The 3rd cooperative BGR/SMNG Arctic cruise was designed to acquire new scietific data for a better understanding of temporal and spatial lithospheric variations during rifting and its influence on the tectonic and structural evolution of the continental crust of the Laptev Sea undergoing extension since at least the Early Tertiary, and for tackling open questions regarding the evolution of the submarine permafrost zone. Although conditions for seismic measurements were worse in 1997 than in 1993 and 1994, along 4,622 km of seismic traverses reflection seismic data and wide angle reflection/refraction data from 23 OBH-(ocean bottom hydrophone) stations were collected in the Laptev and East Siberian Sea. The most prominent rift basin is the Ust' Lena Rift, which is at least 300 km wide at latitude 75°N. The Cenozoic sedimentary cover exceeds 3 km everywhere, increasing up to 14 km at two locations. In the northern part of the shelf, the complex mainly N–S-trending Anisin Basin has a basin fill of up to 10 km thickness. The New Siberian Basin which is located in the northwestern part of the study area shows an up to 9 km thick graben fill. The Laptev Horst crust is locally subdivided into several tilted blocks by deep-reaching faults and there are several half grabens of smaller extent which divide the Laptev Horst into three parts: the North, the South and the East Laptev Horst. A major west dipping listric fault of at least 250 km length separates the Laptev Horst from the Ust' Lena Rift. Results from the seismological investigation indicate that recent extension is concentrated within the narrow rift basins of the eastern Laptev Sea. From wide-angle reflection/refraction seismic measurements the seismic velocities of the crustal layers were estimated along five profiles. The layers with velocities of up to 3.5 km/s apparently consist of predominantly Cenozoic sediments. The sedimentary section showing relatively high seismic velocities of 4.5 to 5.2 km/s might be interpreted as Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic deposits or overcompacted/cemented syn-rift deposits. In the eastern shelf area a layer beneath the acoustic basement was interpreted to represent Ordovician to Early Mesozoic carbonates. The lower crust in the area under study shows relatively uniform seismic velocities of about 6.0-6.8 km/s and the velocities estimated for the crust-mantle transition are in the range of 8.0 to 8.2 km/s. The origin of a several 100 m thick layer with a relative high velocity of 3 to 3.5 km/s directly beneath the seafloor was inferred as sub-sea permafrost.
Between 08.11.1999 and 02.12.1999 the active convergent margin off Costa Rica was investigated using the S/V Professor Polshkov. The cruise had three scientific targets. Several seismic profiles in the dip-direction of the subduction zone were acquired to map the general variability of the accretionary wedge. Near the Jaco Scarp, a dense net of seismic profiles using a smaller seismic source should deliver information about the amount of gas hydrates within the shallow sub-surface. In an area of this wedge south of the Quepos Plateau densely spaced seismic lines were measured to prepare an ODP campaign (which was finished in 2011 as IODP Expedition 334).
Im Rahmen des weit gespannten SPOC-Projektes (Subduction Processes off Chile) wurden zwischen dem 16.10. und 29.11.2001 vor Zentralchile zwischen 28° und 44°S die SONNE-Fahrten SO161 Leg 2 und 3 durchgeführt. In diesem Zeitraum wurden etwa 5.300 km mit vielkanal-/reflexionsseismischen (MCS), magnetischen, gravimetrischen, hochauflösenden bathymetrischen und echographischen Methoden vermessen. Hinzu kamen etwa 3.900 km mit denselben Verfahren, jedoch ohne MCS. Die Gesamtzahl der 2D-Profile betrug 48. Auf vier Ost-West-Traversen wurden amphibische (d. h. in Land-/See-Kombination) weitwinkel-/refraktionsseismische Beobachtungen durchgeführt. Darüber hinaus wurden die ausgesandten marin-seismischen Signale an Land von einem zweidimensionalen seismischen Mobilstationsnetz, das zwischen 37° und 39°S aufgestellt war, aufgezeichnet. Ziel der Untersuchungen war die Veränderlichkeit der Subduktionseigenschaften zwischen den konvergenten Nazca (ozeanisch) und Südamerika (kontinental) Platten sowie die verschiedenen Begleiterscheinungen, die den Subduktionsprozess beeinflussen können wie: (1) Alter der ozeanischen Kruste, (2) ihre Struktur und ihr Aufbau, (3) ihre sedimentäre Bedeckung, (4) ihr thermischer Zustand, (5) Subduktionswinkel und -schiefe sowie (6) der terrigene Sedimentzufluss von der Kontinentseite. Weiterhin waren die Subduktionsfront, die Subduktionsflächen, die Struktur des Kontinenthanges ebenso wie Struktur und Entwicklungsgeschichte der Forearcbecken und die Verteilung von Gashydrat anzeigenden "Meeresboden simulierenden Reflektoren" (BSRs) Gegenstand der Untersuchungen. Die Ergebnisse sollen mit früheren Studien am aktiven chilenischen Kontinentalrand in Vergleich gesetzt werden, z. B. mit CONDOR (SO101 und 103) und CINCA (SO104). Das SPOC-Zielgebiet war in zwei Untergebiete A und B unterteilt. A erstreckt sich von 36°S bis 40°S und war ausersehen für eine detaillierte Untersuchung mit Hilfe eines engabständigen Profilnetzes sowie für eine enge Verbindung mit den landseitigen Aktivitäten des Sonderforschungsbereichs SFB 267 ("Deformationsprozesse in den Anden") der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), des GeoForschungsZentrums Potsdam, der FU Berlin und anderer Partner. Dieses Gebiet ist charakterisiert durch einen deutlich anderen Kontinentrandtyp und andere Eigenschaften des Tiefseegrabens als die Gebiete nördlich davon. Gebiet B wurde ausgewählt, weil in diesem Bereich eine Übergangszone oder eine Grenze zwischen dem subduktionserosiven Kontinentrandtyp vor Nordchile und dem Typ, der im Süden vorherrscht, vermutet wird. Darüber hinaus tritt in dieser Region der Juan Fernandez Rücken in die Subduktionszone ein, der ebenfalls ein wichtiges Erkundungsziel des Projektes ist. Günstige Umstände erlaubten die Vermessung eines Ost-West-Profils südlich von Chiloé zwischen 43°S und 44°S, das über die abgesunkene Küstenkordillere bis in das geflutete Valle Longitudinal verläuft. Dieses Gebiet wird als "C" bezeichnet. Anhand einer ersten an Bord durchgeführten Interpretationen ergeben sich für Fahrtabschnitt 2 und 3 folgende Resultate: In beiden Gebieten A und B konnte kein "Subduction Bulge" (Outer High) festgestellt werden. Möglicherweise reichen die Profile hierfür nicht weit genug. Die sedimentäre Bedeckung der ozeanischen Kruste ist sehr dünn und die ozeanische Krustendicke im allgemeinen sehr "normal" mit ungefähr 7 km, abgeleitet aus relativ schwachen Moho-Reflexionen. In Gebiet B konnte eine bis jetzt magnetisch unkartierte Region vermessen werden, woraus sich recht sichere Alter für die ozeanische Kruste ergeben sowie starke Anhaltspunkte dafür, dass die Challenger Fracture Zone westlich des Untersuchungsgebietes aufhört. Die Arbeiten im Gebiet "C" erbrachten wertvolle Information über die Trench-Morphologie und das bis jetzt einzige MCS-Profil südlich von Chiloé, welches einen sehr breiten Trench anzeigt und weitgehend die Extrapolation der Eigenschaften, die im Gebiet A angetroffen wurden, nach Süden bis etwa 44°S erlaubt.
During the cruise with S.V. EXPLORA within the Ross Sea on the second marine-geophysical expedition of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) to Antarctica, in total 6,745 km of magnetic, gravity and digital reflection seismic lines and additionally 1,400 km gravity lines were acquired in the period from January 10th to March 2nd 1980. On 43 stations sonobuoy refraction measurements have been carried out. The main results are: (1) In the eastern part of the Ross Sea Shelf two striking discontinuities have been identified in the reflection seismics representing gaps in the sediments at the turn-over of the Upper Miocene to the Pliocene (ca. 7 mio years B.P.) and between the Middle and Upper Miocene (ca. 11.5 mio. years B.P.) according to results of DSDP boreholes. (2) In the southern part of the Ross Sea Shelf the basement is uncovered at depths over 700m due to a thrust of the shelf ice recently. (3) A structural unit extends alongside the meridian of 180° separating the Ross Sea into two different geologic regions. This unit is characterised by two basement highs with seismic velocities exceeding 5 km/sec. (4) In relation with the GANOVEX expedition two profiles have been measured off northern Victoria Land which indicate two large faults with a faulting amount of 2 km. Another area is characterised by intrusive and volcanic bodies.
The BGR Antarctic cruise 1996 from 29th December 1995 to 6th February 1996 with M.S. AKADEMIK NEMCHINOV was designed to acquire new marine geophysical data for a better understanding of the geological processes, timing, occurrence and location of rifts of the initial break-up of southern Gondwanaland. A total of 3,836 km of multichannel seismic reflection data have been collected in the areas of the Cosmonaut Sea, the Astrid Ridge, the Lazarev Sea and the southern Agulhas Plateau in parallel with magnetic and gravity measurements. In addition magnetic and gravity measurements were carried out on transit. Major new observations of the collected MCS data include: (1) Volcanic rocks play a major part in the construction of the Astrid Ridge and also of the Agulhas Plateau. (2) The early opening of the Lazarev Sea was associated with excessive volcanism resulting in the emplacement of a voluminous volcanic body characterized by an internally divergent pattern of seaward-dipping reflectors. (3) The Astrid Fracture Zone continues in form of a sediment-filled basement depression flanked by distinct basement highs into the Lazarev Sea, and apparently swings to the west parallel to the coast of Queen Maud Land. (4) The thickness of sediments in the Cosmonaut Sea overlying oceanic crust of inferred Early Cretaceous age is in excess of 4s (twt), i.e. about 6,000 m. Three regional seismic markers of inferred Cretaceous, Late Eocene-Oligocene and Middle Miocene ages subdivide the sedimentary column.
The major pre-alpine tectonic lineaments as the Glückstadt Graben and the Avalonia-Baltica suture zone run across the southern Baltic. The BalTec-expedition aimed at the gapless imaging of these fault systems from the seafloor down to the Paleozoic basement. Scientifically the expedition was motivated by two hypotheses. We postulated that advances and retreats of ice-sheets during the glacials initiated and reactivated faulting of the Post-Permian succession, thereby generating several kilometers long near-vertical faults and anticlines. We further postulated that – in contrast to the generally accepted text book models – deformation of the initially up to 1800 m thick Zechstein salt started already during salt deposition as the consequence of salt load induced basin subsidence and resulting salt creep. The profile network was further designed to allow for linking the stratigraphy between previously generated local underground models in the frame of the TUNB project. Altogether we collected 62 reflection seismic profiles of an entire length of 3500 km. Parasound and multibeam data were collected along 6000 km each. The marine gravimeter collected data along the entire ship’s track of 7000 km. Two wide-angle reflection / refraction profiles have been measured in order to image the deep structure of the Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone off Poland and to investigate North-South striking fault systems in the Bay of Kiel.
On the F.S. POLARSTERN cruise ANT-IV/3 (6th December, 1985 - 13th March, 1986) multichannel seismic measurements were carried out in parallel with magnetic and gravimetric measurements on 33 lines with a total length of 6,263 km. 3,350 km of the multichannel seismic lines have been processed aboard. The geophysical studies were designed to investigate the structure and geological development of the Weddell Sea continental margin from meridians zero to 60°W, and to define suitable and safe drilling locations for Leg 113 of the Ocean Drilling Program. The main results of the geophysical studies are: (1) The discovery of an approximately N50°E trending failed drift basin, following the trend of a negative magnetic anomaly and a positive gravity anomaly. (2) The discovery of two extensive wedge-shaped and symmetric basement units around a failed drift basin between longitudes 40°W and 20°W. The seismic characteristics, i.e. seismic velocities of > 4 km/s and an internally divergent pattern of reflectors suggest that both wedges are formed from extrusive/intrusive volcanic rocks. (3) The confirmation of a major plate tectonic boundary trending approximately N80°E to N60°E, i.e. the EXPLORA-ANDENES escarpment. (4) The confirmation of a glaciogenic progradational wedge beneath the shelf of the Weddell Sea Embayment, made up of several thousand metres of sediments. (5) The definition of 13 suitable and safe drilling locations for ODP-Leg 113.
The Sonne Cruise SO122 was carried out by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR, Hannover) from 3rd August to 9th September 1997, in cooperation with GEOMAR (Kiel), the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO, Karachi) and the Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan (HDIP). During the joint project with R/V SONNE the Makran accretionary wedge off Pakistan should have been investigated in detail with multi-channel reflection seismics, magnetics and gravimetry. Intense fishery offshore Pakistan forced a change of the area of investigation to the south with the following objectives: investigation of the crustal structure and occurrence of the bottom simulating reflector (BSR) in the Makran accretionary wedge; investigation of the structure of the Murray Ridge System in order to reconstruct the geodynamic evolution of the eastern Indian Plate margin; determination of the origin of the crust underlying the Indus Fan and reconnaissance of the sedimentary history of the Indus Fan in order to reveal the uplift and erosion history of the Himalayas.
The CINCA marine geoscience investigations on the convergent continental margin of Chile between 19°S and 33°30'S were accomplished during three legs of RV SONNE cruise SO-104, from 22. July to 15. October 1995. The objectives of the first leg are to contribute to an understanding of the geological architecture and of the tectonic mechanism in the area of the Chile convergent zone through a geophysical assessment of the tectonic structures of the Chile continental margin and the adjacent oceanic Nazca plate. During the first leg from 22. July to 24. August 1995 multichannel seismic reflection data with BGR's new digital streamer were collected along a systematic grid with a total traverse length of 4,494 km simultaneously with the acquisition of magnetic, gravimetric, Hydrosweep and Parasound data over a total traverse length of 7,012 km. GFZ's mobile land array of 12 seismic stations recorded the air gun shots fired by RV SONNE within the CINCA area. Three seismic lines were surveyed between 32°30'S and 33°30'S in the area of the CONDOR project. Here, the surface of the downbending oceanic crust is smooth. The 5,000 m to 6,000 m deep trench floor is underlain by sediments, in excess 2,500 m thick. The inner trench slope consists of a landward thickening accretionary wedge which terminates against a body forming the base of a fore arc basin near Valparaiso. The principal area of the CINCA project extends between 19°S and 26°S and comprises the convergent continental margin, the Peru-Chile trench and the seaward adjacent part of the Nazca plate up to approximately 75°W longitude. The tectonic regime of these units of the CINCA area is very different from the tectonic system of the respective units of the CONDOR area. The Eocene-aged and sediment-starved oceanic crust of the Nazca plate becomes blockfaulted when approaching the outer trench slope break. The 50 km to 70 km wide outer trench slope is characterized by a complex system of horst and graben structures in the CINCA area probably resulting from the strong downbending. Steep fault scarps forming the flanks of the horsts reach vertical offsets varying between few hundreds of metres to 1,000 m, and locally even more. The 7,000 m to 8,l00 m deep trench is very narrow and mostly sediment-starved in the CINCA area. Morphology and architecture of the continental margin of the CINCA area are controlled by planar and listric faulting and tilted blocks of inferred continental nature, which apparently slid down into the trench. The inferred continental blocks, overlying a reflective mass, are covered by sediments of presumably turbiditic nature. An accretionary wedge is difficult to define on the seismic single channel records from the CINCA area. However, processed seismic data show a deep reflective mass underlying the downfaulted blocks of inferred continental nature. This deep reflective mass is interpreted to consist of a tectonically eroded and underplated continental crust-basalt melange forming the transition between the downfaulted continental upper plate and the subducting oceanic lower plate. Complex structural highs of still unknown origin and nature have been observed on the upper continental slope at 20°S, 24°S and 25°S. The northernmost structural high represents the seaward termination of the Iquique fore arc basin. The accuracy of the acquired gravity and bathymetric data is very good, i.e. better than 1 mGal and less than 10 m. The Chile trench is associated with strong negative gravity anomalies, and the continental margin is characterized by several positive and negative gravity anomalies of varying size and amount. The first results of magnetic modeling show, that the intensive blockfaulting of the oceanic crust across the outer trench slope causes no loss of the magnetization of the oceanic crust. The air gun shots fired by RV SONNE in 50 m intervals along 17 seismic traverses were recorded by GFZ's mobile land array in the coastal area of Chile. Good quality data were obtained out to about 100 km distance and in some cases even out to about 150 km.
The BGR 1991 cruise with M.V. BIN HAI 511 was designed to study the variability of the oceanic crustal structure along flow-line profiles perpendicular to the ridge axis over Early Tertiary through Cretaceous old oceanic crust of the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Seismic data with a coverage of 3,000 % were acquired along four flow-line profiles with a total length of 4,194 km, and in addition 270 km of MCS data were collected during the period from 2nd October to the 3rd November 1991. The most intriguing new observation from the seismic flow-line profiles is the discovery of two huge oceanic crustal structures characterized by an internally divergent to planar pattern of reflectors having ubiquitous seaward dip. These remarkable structures were found within an about 1,300 km long oceanic crust segment of the eastern South Atlantic located between the Bode Verde Fracture zone in the north and the Rio Grande Fracture Zone in the south. These structures resemble the prominent wedges of seaward dipping reflectors on the widespread volcanic rifted continental margins described in the literature. They are interpreted to represent voluminous build-ups of layered extrusive rocks formed during three excessive episodes of volcanism that accompanied the Cretaceous opening of the South Atlantic. These episodes of excessive volcanism/magmatism are: An episode immediate prior to, and during the first stage of seafloor spreading in the South Atlantic, i.e. during about Hauterivian through about early Aptian; an episode of inferred subaerial and/or shallow marine volcanism along the central South Atlantic spreading ridge during the Albian; and an episode of inferred subaerial and/or shallow marine volcanism along the South Atlantic spreading ridge during latest Cenomanian/earliest Turonian through early Campanian.
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