Two strong eruptions of Stromboli Volcano (38.789°N 15.213°E, 920 m) occurred on July 3rd and August 28th 2019. This data set provides the infrasound records in terms of raw pressure data in Pascal of both eruptions available at BGR’s infrasound array I26DE in Germany as well as infrasound arrays OHP and CEA in France. The publication “Using dense seismo-acoustic network to provide timely warning of the 2019 paroxysmal Stromboli eruptions” (Le Pichon et al., 2021, Scientific Reports) provides further details on this data set and its scientific application. Data format: The data are provided as ASCII files (separate file for each infrasound sensor and hour of measurement, plus a README file).
INSPIRE theme Maritime Units. These are condensed coordinates of the sea border maps 2920 (North Sea) and 2921 (Baltic Sea). They are (interpolated) coordinates compressed to geodetic lines. The distance between the nodes on the geodetic lines connecting the defined border points is less than or equal to 100 m. The sea borders of Germany were proclaimed in the coordinate system European Datum 1950 (ED50), which is no longer used today. The basis for this determination is in particular the promulgation of the proclamation of the Federal Government on the expansion of the German territorial sea of 19 October 1994 (Federal Law Gazette I p. 3428) and the proclamation of the Federal Republic of Germany on the establishment of an exclusive economic zone of 25 November 1994 (Federal Law Gazette II p. 3769), which are decisive with regard to the delimitation of the German territorial sea and the German exclusive economic zone. In order to make better use of these boundaries in today's geoinformation systems and to avoid conversion errors, the BSH has derived the present utility coordinates in WGS 84. In this respect they are not official maritime borders of Germany.
INSPIRE theme Elevation (depth contours). It contains the depth contour of hydrographic surveying.
Compilation of the European Pre-Quaternary marine geology (section of Germany). Project partners are the national geological services of the participating countries. The map consists of data at highest available spatial resolution, map scale („multi-resolution“-concept) and data completeness vary depending on the project partner (as of 2016 September). According to the Data Specification on Geology (D2.8.II.4_v3.0) the content of the geological map is stored in a INSPIRE-compliant GML file: EMODnet-DE_Pre-Quaternary_GeologicUnit.gml contains the geologic units. The GML files together with a Readme.txt file are provided in ZIP format (EMODnet-DE_Pre-Quaternary-INSPIRE.zip). The Readme.text file (German/English) contains detailed information on the GML file content. Data transformation was proceeded by using the INSPIRE Solution Pack for FME according to the INSPIRE requirements.
The World Settlement Footprint (WSF) evolution is a 30m resolution dataset outlining the global settlement extent on a yearly basis from 1985 to 2015. Based on the assumption that settlement growth occurred over time, all pixels categorized as non-settlement in the WSF2015 (Marconcini et al., 2020) are excluded a priori from the analysis. Next, for each target year in the past, all available Landsat-5/7 scenes acquired over the given area of interest are gathered and key temporal statistics (i.e., temporal mean, minimum, maximum, etc.) are then extracted for different spectral indices. Among others, these include: the normalized difference built-up index (NDBI), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI). Temporal features proved generally robust if computed over at least 7 clear cloud-/cloud-shadow-free observations; accordingly, if for a given pixel in the target year this constraint is not satisfied, the time frame is enlarged backwards (at 1-year steps) as long as the condition is met. Starting backwards from the year 2015 - for which the WSF2015 is used as a reference - settlement and non-settlement training samples for the given target year t are iteratively extracted by applying morphological filtering to the settlement mask derived for the year t+1, as well as excluding potentially mislabeled samples by adaptively thresholding the temporal mean NDBI, MNDWI and NDVI. Finally, binary Random Forest classification in performed. To quantitatively assess the high accuracy and reliability of the dataset, an extensive campaign based on crowdsourcing photointerpretation of very high-resolution airborne and satellite historical imagery has been performed with the support of Google. In particular, for the years 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015, ~200K reference cells of 30x30m size distributed over 100 sites around the world have been labelled, hence summing up to overall ~1.2M validation samples. It is worth noting that past Landsat-5/7 availability considerably varies across the world and over time. Independently from the implemented approach, this might then result in a lower quality of the final product where few/no scenes have been collected. Accordingly, to provide the users with a suitable and intuitive measure that accounts for the goodness of the Landsat imagery, we conceived the Input Data Consistency (IDC) score, which ranges from 6 to 1 with: 6) very good; 5) good; 4) fair; 3) moderate; 2) low; 1) very low. The IDC score is available on a yearly basis between 1985 and 2015 and supports a proper interpretation of the WSF evolution product. The WSF evolution and IDC score datasets are organized in 5138 GeoTIFF files (EPSG4326 projection) each one referring to a portion of 2×2 degree size (~222×222 km) on the ground. WSF evolution values range between 1985 and 2015 corresponding to the estimated year of settlement detection, whereas 0 is no data. A comprehensive publication with all technical details and accuracy figures is currently being finalized. For the time being, please refer to Marconcini et al,. 2021.
INSPIRE theme Production and Industrial Facilities
The World Settlement Footprint (WSF) 2019 is a 10m resolution binary mask outlining the extent of human settlements globally derived by means of 2019 multitemporal Sentinel-1 (S1) and Sentinel-2 (S2) imagery. Based on the hypothesis that settlements generally show a more stable behavior with respect to most land-cover classes, temporal statistics are calculated for both S1- and S2-based indices. In particular, a comprehensive analysis has been performed by exploiting a number of reference building outlines to identify the most suitable set of temporal features (ultimately including 6 from S1 and 25 from S2). Training points for the settlement and non-settlement class are then generated by thresholding specific features, which varies depending on the 30 climate types of the well-established Köppen Geiger scheme. Next, binary classification based on Random Forest is applied and, finally, a dedicated post-processing is performed where ancillary datasets are employed to further reduce omission and commission errors. Here, the whole classification process has been entirely carried out within the Google Earth Engine platform. To assess the high accuracy and reliability of the WSF2019, two independent crowd-sourcing-based validation exercises have been carried out with the support of Google and Mapswipe, respectively, where overall 1M reference labels have been collected based photointerpretation of very high-resolution optical imagery.
Protected Sites of Germany, derived from the german digital landscape model at scale 1:250000. Mapped via EuroBoundaryMap to satisfy INSPIRE and European Location Framework conformance. The dataset is available as Open Data.
INSPIRE theme Oceanographic Geographical Features.
The IGME5000-EU (INSPIRE) represents the pre-quaternary bedrock geology (onshore and offshore) of the European map on a scale of 1:5,000,000. According to the Data Specification on Geology (D2.8.II.4_v3.0) the content of the geological map is stored in two INSPIRE-compliant GML files: IGME5000-EU_GeologicUnit.gml contains the geologic units and IGME5000-EU_GeologicStructure.gml comprises the faults. The GML files together with a Readme.txt file are provided in ZIP format (IGME5000-EU-INSPIRE.zip). The Readme.text file (German/English) contains detailed information on the GML files content. Data transformation was proceeded by using the INSPIRE Solution Pack for FME according to the INSPIRE requirements.
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