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  • TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurements) is an Earth observation radar mission that consists of a SAR interferometer built by two almost identical satellites flying in close formation. With a typical separation between the satellites of 120m to 500m a global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) has been generated. The main objective of the TanDEM-X mission is to create a precise 3D map of the Earth's land surfaces that is homogeneous in quality and unprecedented in accuracy. The data acquisition was completed in 2015 and production of the global DEM was completed in September 2016. The absolute height error is with about 1m an order of magnitude below the 10m requirement. The TanDEM-X 30m DEM is a product variant of the global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) acquired in the frame of the German TanDEM-X mission between 2010 and 2015, and has a reduced pixel spacing of 1 arcsecond (30m at the equator). It covers all Earth’s landmasses from pole to pole. For more information concerning the TanDEM-X mission, the reader is referred to: https://www.dlr.de/dlr/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-10378/

  • TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurements) is an Earth observation radar mission that consists of a SAR interferometer built by two almost identical satellites flying in close formation. With a typical separation between the satellites of 120m to 500m a global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) has been generated. The main objective of the TanDEM-X mission is to create a precise 3D map of the Earth's land surfaces that is homogeneous in quality and unprecedented in accuracy. The data acquisition was completed in 2015 and production of the global DEM was completed in September 2016. The absolute height error is with about 1m an order of magnitude below the 10m requirement. The TanDEM-X 90m DEM is a product variant of the global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) acquired in the frame of the German TanDEM-X mission between 2010 and 2015, and has a reduced pixel spacing of 3 arcseconds (90m at the equator). It covers all Earth’s landmasses from pole to pole. For more information concerning the TanDEM-X 90m DEM, the reader is referred to: https://tandemx-90m.dlr.de/ For more information concerning the TanDEM-X mission, the reader is referred to: https://www.dlr.de/dlr/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-10378/

  • TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurements) is an Earth observation radar mission that consists of a SAR interferometer built by two almost identical satellites flying in close formation. With a typical separation between the satellites of 120m to 500m a global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) has been generated. The main objective of the TanDEM-X mission is to create a precise 3D map of the Earth's land surfaces that is homogeneous in quality and unprecedented in accuracy. The data acquisition was completed in 2015 and production of the global DEM was completed in September 2016. The absolute height error is with about 1m an order of magnitude below the 10m requirement. The TanDEM-X 12m DEM is the nominal product variant of the global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) acquired in the frame of the German TanDEM-X mission between 2010 and 2015 with a spatial resolution of 0.4 arcseconds (12m at the equator). It covers all Earth’s landmasses from pole to pole. For more information concerning the TanDEM-X mission, the reader is referred to: https://www.dlr.de/dlr/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-10378/

  • The Global WaterPack is a dataset containing information about open surface water cover parameters on a global scale. The water detection is derived from daily, operational MODIS datasets for every year since 2003. The negative effects of polar darkness and cloud coverage are compensated by applying interpolation processing steps. Thereby, a unique global dataset can be provided that is characterized by its high temporal resolution of one day and a spatial resolution of 250 meter.

  • The RapidEye Earth observation system comprised five satellites equipped with high-resolution optical sensors. Co-funded by the German Federal Government, the fleet of satellites was launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan in 2008. RapidEye is owned by Planet Labs, Inc. It has been operated by Planet Labs Germany GmbH until the constellation was retired in March 2020. With all 5 satellites arranged in one orbit the RapidEye constellation was capable of taking images of the Earth's surface at high repeat rates with a maximum of 5 million km² per day. With a spatial resolution of 6.5m the 5-band sensors onboard the RapidEye satellites operated in the visible and near-infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. For more information see: https://www.dlr.de/rd/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-2440/3586_read-5336/ The PlanetScope data of this collection has been purchased by the German Space Agency with funds from the Ministry of Economy and is available for Germany-based researchers for scientific use. The data collection is maintained by the German Satellite Data Archive (D-SDA) of DLR’s Earth Observation Center and can be accessed via the EOWEB Geoportal. The RapidEye Analytic Ortho Tile (L3A) product is orthorectified, multispectral data and is suitable for many data science and analytic applications that require imagery with an accurate geolocation and cartographic projection. It eliminates the perspective effect on the ground (not on buildings), restoring the geometry of a vertical shot. In addition to orthorectification, the imagery has radiometric corrections applied to correct for any sensor artifacts and transformation to at-sensor radiance. For more details see: https://assets.planet.com/docs/Planet_Combined_Imagery_Product_Specs_letter_screen.pdf

  • The World Settlement Footprint WSF 2015 version 2 (WSF2015 v2) is a 10m resolution binary mask outlining the extent of human settlements globally for the year 2015. Specifically, the WSF2015 v2 is a pilot product generated by combining multiple datasets, namely: • The WSF2015 v1 derived at 10m spatial resolution by means of 2014-2015 multitemporal Landsat-8 and Sentinel-1 imagery (of which ~217K and ~107K scenes have been processed, respectively); https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-00580-5 • The High Resolution Settlement Layer (HRSL) generated by the Connectivity Lab team at Facebook through the employment of 2016 DigitalGlobe VHR satellite imagery and publicly released at 30m spatial resolution for 214 countries; https://arxiv.org/pdf/1712.05839.pdf • The novel WSF2019 v1 derived at 10m spatial resolution by means of 2019 multitemporal Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 imagery (of which ~ 1.2M and ~1.8M scenes have been processed, respectively); https://doi.org/10.1553/giscience2021_01_s33 The WSF2015 v1 demonstrated to be highly accurate, outperforming all similar existing global layers; however, the use of Landsat imagery prevented a proper detection of very small structures, mostly due to their reduced scale. Based on an extensive qualitative assessment, wherever available the HRSL layer shows instead a systematic underestimation of larger settlements, whereas it proves particularly effective in identifying smaller clusters of buildings down to single houses, thanks to the employment of 2016 VHR imagery. The WSF2015v v2 has been then generated by: i) merging the WSF2015 v1 and HRSL (after resampling to 10m resolution and disregarding the population density information attached); and ii) masking the outcome by means of the WSF2019 product, which exhibits even higher detail and accuracy, also thanks to the use of Sentinel-2 data and the proper employment of state-of-the-art ancillary datasets (which allowed, for instance, to effectively mask out all roads globally from motorways to residential).

  • The TimeScan product is based on the fully-automated analysis of comprehensive time-series acquisitions of Landsat data. Based on a user-specified definition of the required period of time, the region of interest and – optionally – the maximum cloud cover, the TimeScan processor starts with the collection of all available Landsat scenes that meet the user specification. Next, for each single scene masking of clouds, haze and shadow is conducted using the Fmask algorithm. Then, a total of 6 indices is calculated for those pixels of each single scene that have not been masked in the prior step. The set of indices includes the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Built-up Index (BI), the Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI), the Normalized Difference Band-5 / Band-7 (ND57), the Normalized Difference Band-4 / Band-3 (ND43), and the Normalized Difference Band-3 / Band-2 (ND32). Finally, the TimeScan product is generated by calculating the temporal statistics (minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation, mean slope) for each index over the defined period of time. Hence, in case of the defined 6 indices chosen, the TimeScan product will include a total of 30 bands (5 statistical features per index). As an additional band a quality layer is added which shows for each pixel the number of valid values (meaning times with no cloud/haze or shadow cover) that have been included in the statistics calculation.

  • The SkySat constellation is comprised of 21 micro satellites with a size of 60 x 60 x 80 cm. SkySats can be tasked to acquire panchromatic and multispectral images of the Earth in high resolution (up to 50 centimeter) and at sub-daily frequency. They can also capture stereo imagery and video footage for up to 90 seconds. The first SkySat was launched in 2013, whereas higher resolution SkySat-C generation satellites were first launched in 2016. The SkySat constellation is owned and operated by Planet. The SkySat imagery of this collection covers specific test sites. The data has been purchased by the German Space Agency with funds from the Ministry of Economy and is available for Germany-based researchers for scientific use. The data collection is maintained by the German Satellite Data Archive (D-SDA) of DLR’s Earth Observation Center and can be accessed via the EOWEB Geoportal. This collection comprises SkySat Collect products. The Ortho Collect product is created by composing SkySat Ortho Scenes along an imaging strip into segments typically unifying approximately 60 SkySat Ortho Scenes. It includes multispectral (BGRN) as well as the panchromatic (PAN) assets. Radiometric corrections to correct for any sensor artifacts and transformation to top-of-atmosphere radiance are applied. If available, the atmospherically corrected Surface Reflectance layer is included. For more details see: https://assets.planet.com/docs/Planet_Combined_Imagery_Product_Specs_letter_screen.pdf

  • The PlanetScope satellite constellation, called ‘Flock’, consists of multiple launches of groups of individual Dove satellites into a 400 km orbit. Some of them were launched from the ISS. Therefore, on-orbit capacity is constantly improving in capability or quantity. Each Dove satellite is a CubeSat with a size of 10 x 10 x 34 cm. The complete PlanetScope constellation of approximately 130 satellites is able to image the entire land surface of the Earth every day, equating to a daily collection capacity of 200 million km². In 2014 the first Dove satellites started operationally acquiring images from the earth’s surface. The optical sensors mounted on the individual Dove satellites operate in the visual and near-infrared parts of the electromagnetic spectrum with a spatial resolution between 3 and 5 meters. A third generation of PlanetScope sensors (known as SuperDove or PSB.SD) is currently in orbit and is producing limited quantities of imagery with 5 spectral bands (BGRNIR + Red Edge). These satellites have the potential to produce imagery with 8 separate spectral bands. The RapidEye Science Archive (RESA), which allows Germany-based researchers to apply for free PlanetScope imagery, is operated by the German Satellite Data Archive (D-SDA) of DLR’s Earth Observation Center and can be accessed via the EOWEB Geoportal. New PlanetScope data as well as archive data which is not yet part of the RESA collections can be applied for at Planet Labs Germany GmbH under the RESA contract. For more information see: https://www.planet.com/resa/ This collection comprises the PlanetScope L3A OrthoTile products which are orthorectified as individual 25 km by 25 km tiles referenced to a fixed, standard image tile grid system. The OrthoTile products are radiometrically-, sensor-, and geometrically-corrected and aligned to a cartographic map projection. The Surface Reflectance layer which corrects for the effects of the Earth's atmosphere is included in the product.

  • National Hydrological Services have identified “climate sensitive” stations on request of the WMO Commission for Hydrology in order to assess the variability and trends in hydrological data associated with climate variability and change. GRDC has offered to integrate this dataset into the Global Runoff Database.

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