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  • In order to explore the sensitivity of the climate impact of volcanic eruptions to eruption season and latitude, we simulate volcanic eruptions at different latitudes and in different seasons with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). We use the same configuration of the MPI-ESM model as used for the historical simulation of CMIP6. An initial run is performed firstly (PINArst). Then we perform 23 and 10 control runs without any volcanic eruption (PINAref and PINAwRef). Two groups of three different latitudinal volcanic eruptions in boreal summer and winter are simulated. We perform 10-member simulations for each eruption case. 9 Tg of total sulfur injection magnitude is prescribed. The eruption latitudes are set to be 0° for the equatorial eruptions (PINAeq and PINAwEQ) and 30° N and 30° S for the northern and southern hemispheric eruptions (PINAnh, PINAwNH, PINAsh and PINAwNH), respectively. For the summer eruptions, the date is set to be the same as the 1991 Pinatubo eruption on June 15, 1991; for the winter eruptions, the date is set to be December 15, 1991.

  • rcp45 is an experiment of the CMIP5 - Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5). CMIP5 is meant to provide a framework for coordinated climate change experiments for the next five years and thus includes simulations for assessment in the AR5 as well as others that extend beyond the AR5. 4.1 rcp45 (4.1 RCP4.5): Future projection (2006-2100) forced by RCP4.5. RCP4.5 is a representative concentration pathway which approximately results in a radiative forcing of 4.5 W m-2 at year 2100, relative to pre-industrial conditions. RCPs are time-dependent, consistent projections of emissions and concentrations of radiatively active gases and particles. Experiment design is described in detail in https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/experiment_design.html and the list of output variables and their temporal resolutions are given in https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/datadescription.html . The output is stored in netCDF format as time series per variable in model grid spatial resolution. For more information on the Earth System model and the simulation please refer to the CIM repository.

  • 'amip' is an experiment of the CMIP5 - Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5). CMIP5 is meant to provide a framework for coordinated climate change experiments for the next five years and thus includes simulations for assessment in the AR5 as well as others that extend beyond the AR5. 3.3 amip (3.3 AMIP) - Version 1: AMIP (1979 - at least 2008). Impose SSTs and sea ice from observations but with other conditions as in experiment 3.2 historical. Experiment design: https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/experiment_design.html List of output variables: https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/datadescription.html Output: time series per variable in model grid spatial resolution in netCDF format Earth System model and the simulation information: CIM repository Entry name/title of data are specified according to the Data Reference Syntax (https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/docs/cmip5_data_reference_syntax.pdf) as activity/product/institute/model/experiment/frequency/modeling realm/MIP table/ensemble member/version number/variable name/CMOR filename.nc.

  • '1pctCo2' is an experiment of the CMIP5 - Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5). CMIP5 is meant to provide a framework for coordinated climate change experiments for the next five years and thus includes simulations for assessment in the AR5 as well as others that extend beyond the AR5. 6.1 1pctCo2 (6.1 1 percent per year CO2) - Version 1: Idealized 1% per year increase in atmospheric CO2 to quadrupling. Experiment design: https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/experiment_design.html List of output variables: https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/datadescription.html Output: time series per variable in model grid spatial resolution in netCDF format Earth System model and the simulation information: CIM repository Entry name/title of data are specified according to the Data Reference Syntax (https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/docs/cmip5_data_reference_syntax.pdf) as activity/product/institute/model/experiment/frequency/modeling realm/MIP table/ensemble member/version number/variable name/CMOR filename.nc.

  • 'abrupt4xco2' is an experiment of the CMIP5 - Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5). CMIP5 is meant to provide a framework for coordinated climate change experiments for the next five years and thus includes simulations for assessment in the AR5 as well as others that extend beyond the AR5. 6.3 abrupt4xco2 (6.3 Abrupt 4XCO2) - Version 1: Impose an instantaneous quadrupling of CO2, then hold fixed. Experiment design: https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/experiment_design.html List of output variables: https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/datadescription.html Output: time series per variable in model grid spatial resolution in netCDF format Earth System model and the simulation information: CIM repository Entry name/title of data are specified according to the Data Reference Syntax (https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/docs/cmip5_data_reference_syntax.pdf) as activity/product/institute/model/experiment/frequency/modeling realm/MIP table/ensemble member/version number/variable name/CMOR filename.nc.

  • 'esmFdbk1' is an experiment of the CMIP5 - Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5). CMIP5 is meant to provide a framework for coordinated climate change experiments for the next five years and thus includes simulations for assessment in the AR5 as well as others that extend beyond the AR5. 5.5-1 esmFdbk1 (5.5-1 ESM feedback 1) - Version 1: Carbon cycle sees piControl CO2 concentration, but radiation sees 1% per year rise. Experiment design: https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/experiment_design.html List of output variables: https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/datadescription.html Output: time series per variable in model grid spatial resolution in netCDF format Earth System model and the simulation information: CIM repository Entry name/title of data are specified according to the Data Reference Syntax (https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/docs/cmip5_data_reference_syntax.pdf) as activity/product/institute/model/experiment/frequency/modeling realm/MIP table/ensemble member/version number/variable name/CMOR filename.nc.

  • esmFixClim is an experiment of the CMIP5 - Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 ( https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5 ). CMIP5 is meant to provide a framework for coordinated climate change experiments for the next five years and thus includes simulations for assessment in the AR5 as well as others that extend beyond the AR5. 5.4-1 esmFixClim (5.4-1 ESM fixed climate 1) - Version 1: Radiation code sees piControl CO2 concentration, but carbon cycle sees 1% per year rise. Experiment design: https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/experiment_design.html List of output variables: https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/datadescription.html Output: time series per variable in model grid spatial resolution in netCDF format Earth System model and the simulation information: CIM repository Entry name/title of data are specified according to the Data Reference Syntax ( https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/docs/cmip5_data_reference_syntax.pdf ) as activity/product/institute/model/experiment/frequency/modeling realm/MIP table/ensemble member/version number/variable name/CMOR filename.nc .

  • 'historical' is an experiment of the CMIP5 - Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5). CMIP5 is meant to provide a framework for coordinated climate change experiments for the next five years and thus includes simulations for assessment in the AR5 as well as others that extend beyond the AR5. 3.2 historical (3.2 Historical) - Version 1: Simulation of recent past (1850 to 2005). Impose changing conditions (consistent with observations). Experiment design: https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/experiment_design.html List of output variables: https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/datadescription.html Output: time series per variable in model grid spatial resolution in netCDF format Earth System model and the simulation information: CIM repository Entry name/title of data are specified according to the Data Reference Syntax (https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/docs/cmip5_data_reference_syntax.pdf) as activity/product/institute/model/experiment/frequency/modeling realm/MIP table/ensemble member/version number/variable name/CMOR filename.nc.

  • piControl is an experiment of the CMIP5 - Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 ( https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5 ). CMIP5 is meant to provide a framework for coordinated climate change experiments for the next five years and thus includes simulations for assessment in the AR5 as well as others that extend beyond the AR5. 3.1 piControl (3.1 Pre-Industrial Control) - Version 1: Pre-Industrial coupled atmosphere/ocean control run. Imposes non-evolving pre-industrial conditions. Experiment design: https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/experiment_design.html List of output variables: https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/datadescription.html Output: time series per variable in model grid spatial resolution in netCDF format Earth System model and the simulation information: CIM repository Entry name/title of data are specified according to the Data Reference Syntax ( https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/docs/cmip5_data_reference_syntax.pdf ) as activity/product/institute/model/experiment/frequency/modeling realm/MIP table/ensemble member/version number/variable name/CMOR filename.nc .

  • rcp26 is an experiment of the CMIP5 - Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 ( https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5 ). CMIP5 is meant to provide a framework for coordinated climate change experiments for the next five years and thus includes simulations for assessment in the AR5 as well as others that extend beyond the AR5. 4.3 rcp26 (4.3 RCP2.6) - Version 1: Future projection (2006-2100) forced by RCP2.6. RCP2.6 is a representative concentration pathway which approximately results in a radiative forcing of 2.6 W m-2 at year 2100, relative to pre-industrial conditions. Experiment design: https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/experiment_design.html List of output variables: https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/datadescription.html Output: time series per variable in model grid spatial resolution in netCDF format Earth System model and the simulation information: CIM repository Entry name/title of data are specified according to the Data Reference Syntax ( https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/docs/cmip5_data_reference_syntax.pdf ) as activity/product/institute/model/experiment/frequency/modeling realm/MIP table/ensemble member/version number/variable name/CMOR filename.nc .

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