stratospheric volcanic aerosol

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  • In order to explore the sensitivity of the climate impact of volcanic eruptions to eruption season and latitude, we simulate volcanic eruptions at different latitudes and in different seasons with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). We use the same configuration of the MPI-ESM model as used for the historical simulation of CMIP6. An initial run is performed firstly (PINArst). Then we perform 23 and 10 control runs without any volcanic eruption (PINAref and PINAwRef). Two groups of three different latitudinal volcanic eruptions in boreal summer and winter are simulated. We perform 10-member simulations for each eruption case. 9 Tg of total sulfur injection magnitude is prescribed. The eruption latitudes are set to be 0° for the equatorial eruptions (PINAeq and PINAwEQ) and 30° N and 30° S for the northern and southern hemispheric eruptions (PINAnh, PINAwNH, PINAsh and PINAwNH), respectively. For the summer eruptions, the date is set to be the same as the 1991 Pinatubo eruption on June 15, 1991; for the winter eruptions, the date is set to be December 15, 1991.

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