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  • This datasets contains simulation output for the global hydrological models HydroPy and MPI-HM. Both used meteorological forcing from the GSWP3 dataset for the period 1979-2014 and a 50 years spinup period. The analysis of this simulations is published at https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2021-53 .

  • This experiment comprises data that have been used in Hagemann et al. (submitted). It comprises daily data of surface runoff and subsurface runoff from HydroPy and simulated daily discharges (river runoff) of the HD model. The discharge data close the water cycle at the land-ocean interface so that the discharges can be used as lateral freshwater input for ocean models applied in the European region. a) HD5-ERA5 ERA5 is the fifth generation of atmospheric reanalysis (Hersbach et al., 2020) produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). It provides hourly data on many atmospheric, land-surface, and sea-state parameters at about 31 km resolution. The global hydrology model HydroPy (Stacke and Hagemann, 2021) was driven by daily ERA5 forcing data from 1979-2018 to generate daily input fields of surface and subsurface runoff at the ERA5 resolution. It uses precipitation and 2m temperature directly from the ERA5 dataset. Furthermore, potential evapotranspiration (PET) was calculated from ERA5 data in a pre-processing step and used as an additional forcing for HydroPy. Here, we applied the Penman-Monteith equation to calculate a reference evapotranspiration following (Allen et al., 1998) that was improved by replacing the constant value for albedo with a distributed field from the LSP2 dataset (Hagemann, 2002). In order to initialize the storages in the HydroPy model and to avoid any drift during the actual simulation period, we conducted a 50-years spin-up simulation by repeatedly using year 1979 of the ERA5 dataset as forcing. To generate river runoff, the Hydrological discharge (HD) model (Hagemann et al., 2020; Hagemann and Ho-Hagemann, 2021) was used that was operated at 5 arc minutes horizontal resolution. The HD model was set up over the European domain covering the land areas between -11°W to 69°E and 27°N to 72°N. First, the forcing data of surface and sub-surface runoff simulated by HydroPy were interpolated to the HD model grid. Then, daily discharges were simulated with the HD model. b) HD5-EOBS The E-OBS dataset (Cornes et al., 2018) comprises several daily gridded surface variables at 0.1° and 0.25° resolution over Europe covering the area 25°N-71.5°N x 25°W-45°E. The dataset has been derived from station data collated by the ECA&D (European Climate Assessment & Dataset) initiative (Klein Tank et al., 2002; Klok and Klein Tank, 2009). In the present study, we use the best-guess fields of precipitation and 2m temperature of vs. 22 (EOBS22) at 0.1° resolution for the years 1950-2018. HydroPy was driven by daily EOBS22 data of temperature and precipitation at 0.1° resolution from 1950-2019. The potential evapotranspiration (PET) was calculated following the approach proposed by (Thornthwaite, 1948) including an average day length at a given location. As for HD5-ERA5, the forcing data of surface and sub-surface runoff simulated by HydroPy were first interpolated to the HD model grid. Then, daily discharges were simulated with the HD model. Main reference: Hagemann, S., Stacke, T. Complementing ERA5 and E-OBS with high-resolution river discharge over Europe. Oceanologia. Submitted.

  • The data of this experiment have been used in (Hagemann et al., 2020). It comprise daily data of surface runoff and subsurface runoff (drainage) from JSBACH and MPI-HM and simulated daily discharges (river runoff). To generate river runoff, the Hydrological discharge (HD) model (Hagemann et al., 2020; Hagemann and Ho-Hagemann, 2021) was used that was operated at 5 arc minutes horizontal resolution. Different to the published version of HD model parameters (5.0) on Zenodo, an earlier version (4.0) of flow directions and model parameters has been used that is provided as an auxiliary data file. The HD model was set up over the European domain covering the land areas between -11°W to 69°E and 27°N to 72°N. First, the respective forcing data of surface and sub-surface runoff were interpolated to the HD model domain using conservative remapping. Then, daily discharges were simulated with the HD model for the period 1979-2009 (1999-2009 for HD5-MESCAN). In addition, daily discharges were analogously simulated using only JSBACH forcing with the global 0.5° version 1.10 of the HD model. The associated flow directions and model parameters of vs. 1.10 are provided as an auxiliary data file. The HD forcing data are: a) HD5-JSBACH In order to generate daily input fields of surface runoff and drainage, the land surface scheme JSBACH (vs. 3 + frozen soil physics; (Ekici et al., 2014)) was forced globally at 0.5° with daily atmospheric forcing data based on the Interim Re-Analysis of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ERA-Interim; (Dee et al., 2011)). These forcing data are bias-corrected (see (Beer et al., 2014)) towards the so-called WATCH forcing data (WFD; (Weedon et al., 2011)) that have been generated in the EU project WATCH. b) HD5-MPIHM The MPI-M hydrology model MPI-HM (Stacke and Hagemann, 2012) was driven by daily WATCH forcing data based on ERA-Interim (WFDEI; (Weedon et al., 2014)) from 1979-2009 to generate daily input fields of surface runoff and drainage at global 0.5° resolution. c) HD5-MESCAN Six hourly data of surface runoff and drainage (variable name: percolation) were retrieved from the MESCAN-SURFEX regional surface reanalysis (Bazile et al., 2017) created in the EU project UERRA (Uncertainties in Ensembles of Regional ReAnalysis; www.uerra.eu). SURFEX (Masson et al., 2013) is a land surface platform that was driven by atmospheric forcing at 5.5 km. The forcing comprises 24h-precipitation, near-surface temperature and relative humidity analyzed by the MESCAN surface analysis system as well as radiative fluxes and wind downscaled at 5.5 km from the 3DVar re-analysis conducted with the HARMONIE system at 11 km (Ridal et al., 2017). The latter has been generated using six-hourly fields of the ERA-Interim reanalysis as boundary conditions and covers a domain comprising Europe and parts of the Atlantic, which is similar to the European domain of the Coordinated Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) at 11 km.

  • Das GERICS hat für alle 401 deutschen Landkreise, Kreise, Regionalkreise und kreisfreien Städte einen Klimaausblick veröffentlicht. https://www.gerics.de/products_and_publications/fact_sheets/landkreise/index.php.de Jeder Bericht fasst die Ergebnisse für Klimakenngrößen wie z.B. Temperatur, Hitzetage, Trockentage oder Starkregentage auf wenigen Seiten zusammen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen die projizierten Entwicklungen der Klimakenngrößen im Verlauf des 21. Jahrhunderts für ein Szenario mit viel Klimaschutz, ein Szenario mit mäßigem Klimaschutz und ein Szenario ohne wirksamen Klimaschutz. Datengrundlage sind 85 EURO-CORDEX-Simulationen, sowie der HYRAS-Datensatz des Deutschen Wetterdienstes. GERICS has published a climate report for each of the 401 German districts. https://www.gerics.de/products_and_publications/fact_sheets/landkreise/index.php.de Each report summarizes a selection of climate indices like temperature, hot days, dry days or days with heavy precipitation on a few pages. The results show the future development of these indices in the 21st century for three scenarios with strong, medium and weak climate protection, respectively. The data originates from 85 EURO-CORDEX simulations with regional climate models, and the HYRAS dataset of the German Weather Service.

  • The module allows for taking into account wind farms in atmospheric modelling via the wind farm parametrization by Fitch et al, 2012 in the regional climate model COSMO-CLM. Prerequisite is a wind farm mask file. Further details are given in the " Step-by-step implementation" document. Version 2.0: Update of wind farm parametrization

  • The hydrodynamic model Trim-NP (2.6) was used to get an impression of the spatial distribution of water levels at the coast during historical severe storm tides. For these events, the atmospheric reanalysis products from the Twentieth Century Reanalysis project (20CR), (Compo et al., 2011; Slivinski et al., 2019) and from the ECMWF (ERA5 and UERRA-HARMONIE) (Hersbach et al., 2018, Copernicus Climate Change Service, 2019) are used to force the model. Additionally, the German weather service (DWD) developed reanalysis data for storm surge events for the project OptempS-MohoWif (Kristandt et al., 2014). These reanalysis data are calculated three days before the event and two days after. Based on the comparison between tide gauge observations and model output, we can estimate, the skill of the reanalyses in simulating severe storms. All model runs are forced by finite element solutions tidal atlases FES2004 at the lateral boundaries (Lyard et al., 2006). Further information about the reanalyses: https://psl.noaa.gov/data/20thC_Rean/ https://www.ecmwf.int/en/research/climate-reanalysis/reanalysis-climate-monitoring https://www.ecmwf.int/en/forecasts/dataset/uncertainties-ensembles-regional-reanalysis Copernicus Climate Change Service, Climate Data Store, (2019): Complete UERRA regional reanalysis for Europe from 1961 to 2019. Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) Climate Data Store (CDS). DOI: 10.24381/cds.dd7c6d66 (Accessed on 01-APR-2023) The file name of the data sets is composed as follows. trim_<grid>.<variable>.<forcing>_<year>_<run>.nc grid: 2 ( 6.4 km resolution) and 4 (1.6km resolution) variables: u10(x_wind), v10(y_wind) und e(sea_surface_height_above_sea_level) forcing: 20CR versions(v2c und v3) and (UERRA, ERA5) for ECMWF and OptemptS Year: 1825, 1949, 1953, 1962, 1967, 1976, 1999, 2013 run: only used for the 20CR project with 56 (v2c) and 80 (v3) ensemble members Depending on whether the forcing data was available, data are generated.

  • Regional coupled ecosystem simulation of the Southern North Sea with the fully coupled Modular System for Shelves and Coasts (MOSSCO v1.0.2), an application layer of the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF). Here, we couple (1) the General Estuarine Transport Model (GETM) hydrodynamics and local waves with (2) the Model for Adaptive ECoSystems (MAECS) in the pelagic through the Framework for Aquatic Biogeochemical Models (FABM), and (3) the Ocean Margin Experiment Diagenesis (OMExDia) with added phosphorous cycle in the benthic through FABM. Forcing and boundary conditions are provided by (1) zero-gradient open boundary dissolved and particulate nutrients from a North Atlantic shelf simulation with the Ecosystem Model Hamburg (ECOHAM), (2) astronomical forcing of tides as boundary sea surface elevation, (3) surface winds from the CoastDat2 Climate Limited Area (CLM) hindcast, (4) sediment porosity from the North Sea Observation and Assessment of Habitats (NOAH) atlas, and (5) river fluxes and nutrient loads from the Hereon River database. The simulation covers the period 1 Feb 1960 to 31 Jan 2013, where the first year 1960 should be considered spin-up, such that analysis should be performed on complete production years 1961 to 2012. The simulation is performed on a curvilinear grid of the Southern North Sea, represented by a 98 x 139 logically rectangular grid, with varying spatial resolution of 3.7-66 sqkm per grid cell, and highest resolution in the Elbe Estuary. Vertical resolution is 20 layers in the pelagic on terrain-following sigma coordinates, and 15 z-levels resolving the ocean floor down to 20 cm. The output format is netCDF in the Climate and Forecast (CF) convention as much as possible. Complete three-dimensional data are available at 36-hour intervals. The coupled model system and the model setup are described in detail in Lemmen et al. (2018). Validations of the ecosystem coupling were performed, amongst others by Wirtz (2019, also describing the ecosystem model) and Slavik et al. (2019) using the same setup. Coupling to sediment processes is described by Nasermoaddeli et al. (2018) and to bentho-pelagic filtration by Lemmen (2018). The results specific to this long-term simulation have already been used by Xu et al. (2022). The model system and all of its components are available as free and open source and available from https://codebase.helmholtz.cloud/mossco/code.

  • This is a hydrodynamic hindcast for the North Sea and the Northeast Atlantic over the period 1948-2022 and ongoing. Atmospheric forcing is the regional COSMO-CLM NCEP1 data. The simulation has been performed with the hydrodynamic model TRIM-NP V2.5 in barotropic 2D mode. FES tides are included. Water level and current component fields are stored hourly. The model is set up on an equidistant Cartesian grid cascade with the center near Helgoland (7.88 E, 54.18 N). The coarsest grid with 12.8 km resolution covers the area from 20 W to 30 E and from 42 N to 65 N. Further nested grids better resolve the North Sea (with 6.4km), southern North Sea (with 3.2km) and the German Bight (with 1.6km and 0.4km). Hourly model data from grid 1 (ssh) and grid 4 (ssh, u-current, v-current) are available in this data bank. For data from other grids or 20min temporal resolution please contact the authors.

  • This is a hydrodynamic hindcast for the North Sea and the Northeast Atlantic over the period 1995-2019. Atmospheric forcing is COSMO-REA6 high-resolution reconstruction (https://reanalysis.meteo.uni-bonn.de/?COSMO-REA6). The simulation has been performed with the hydrodynamic model TRIM-NP V2.5 in barotropic 2D mode. FES tides are included. Water level and current component fields are stored hourly/20min. The model is set up on an equidistant Cartesian grid cascade with the center near Helgoland (7.88 E, 54.18 N). The coarsest grid with 12.8 km resolution covers the area from 20 W to 30 E and from 42 N to 65 N. Further nested grids better resolve the North Sea (with 6.4km), southern North Sea (with 3.2km) and the German Bight (with 1.6km and 0.4km). Model data from grid 1 (ssh) and grid 4 (ssh, u-current, v-current) are available in this data bank. Please contact the authors for data from other grids or finer temporal resolution.

  • This is a wave hindcast for the period 1995 - 2018 covering the North and Baltic Sea. The simulation has been performed with the spectral wave model WAM Version 4.6.2. The model domain covers the area from approx 49.2° N to 66.6° N and 9.8° W to 31.6° E, with a spatial resolution of 0.044 degree latitude x 0.044 degree longitude (approx. 5 by 5 km) on a rotated grid with the coordinates of the rotated north pole 140°W E and 32° N. Integrated parameter derived from 2D spectra are available every hour. Atmospheric forcing was obtained from the COSMO-REA6 regional atmospheric reanalysis (https://rmets.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/qj.2486) provided by the German Weather Service (DWD) . Lateral boundary conditions were obtained from corresponding coarse grid hindcast covering most of the Northeast Atlantic driven by the same atmospheric forcing.

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