Model runs over Europe were conducted within the ESM project (www.esm-project.net/) for the Frontier Simulations supporting the water and matter fluxes from the European landmass to receiving water bodies (Baltic Sea, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea). Daily discharge from the mesoscale Hydrologic Model (mHM; Samaniego et al., 2010; Kumar et al., 2013; Code version: git.ufz.de/mhm/mhm git version: 35b5cb1) operated at the spatial resolution of 1/16deg for the simulation period from 1.1.1960-31.12.2019 across the European domain (Longitude -11 to 41 Latitude 35 to 72). Model runs were conducted within the ESM project (www.esm-project.net/) for the Frontier Simulations supporting the water and matter fluxes from the European landmass to receiving water bodies (Baltic Sea, Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranian Sea). Special consideration was given to the coastal cells by filtering out those (bordering) grid cells that do not have 100% landmass (i.e., cells with a significant proportion of water bodies/sea/ocean coverage). Meteorological forcing data are based on the E-OBS v21e (daily precipitation, temperature, Hofstra et al. 2009), potential evapotranspiration is based on the Hargreaves-Samani method. Soil characteristics are obtained from the global SoilGrids database (Hengtl et al. 2014; the land cover is derived from the Globcover_V2 (http://due.esrin.esa.int/page_globcover.php); geomorphological features are based on the GMTED2010 (Danielson et al., 2011). Model parameterization was constrained using the observed discharge time series from the GRDC stations (https://portal.grdc.bafg.de/), satisfying the following three conditions: gauge LAT>48degN, area> 5000km2, area <170000km2. Multi-basin calibration and validation were employed to check the consistency of model simulations following Rakovec et al., 2016 and Samaniego et al. 2019, as follows. Calibration objective function using KGE, DDS algorithm with 500 iterations, to account for uncertainty in the calibration process and the basin selections, 50 random initial conditions were randomly drawn sub-set of basins (N=6basins). The best parameter set in the cross-validations across 1201 basins was selected for the final run (ID: 542). A static 2D file of flow direction over Europe at the routing resolution 1/16deg. Internal upscaling to 1/16deg from the higher resolution (1/512deg) done within mHM (Code version: mesoscale Hydrologic Model (git.ufz.de/mhm/mhm git version: 35b5cb1). Special consideration was given to the coastal cells by filtering out those (bordering) grid cells that do not have 100% landmass (i.e., cells with a significant proportion of water bodies/sea/ocean coverage). Flow direction network (lat,lon) and routed runoff (time,lat,lon) at 1/16deg are provided as separate datasets.
The data of this experiment have been used in (Hagemann et al., 2020). It comprise daily data of surface runoff and subsurface runoff (drainage) from JSBACH and MPI-HM and simulated daily discharges (river runoff). To generate river runoff, the Hydrological discharge (HD) model (Hagemann et al., 2020; Hagemann and Ho-Hagemann, 2021) was used that was operated at 5 arc minutes horizontal resolution. Different to the published version of HD model parameters (5.0) on Zenodo, an earlier version (4.0) of flow directions and model parameters has been used that is provided as an auxiliary data file. The HD model was set up over the European domain covering the land areas between -11°W to 69°E and 27°N to 72°N. First, the respective forcing data of surface and sub-surface runoff were interpolated to the HD model domain using conservative remapping. Then, daily discharges were simulated with the HD model for the period 1979-2009 (1999-2009 for HD5-MESCAN). In addition, daily discharges were analogously simulated using only JSBACH forcing with the global 0.5° version 1.10 of the HD model. The associated flow directions and model parameters of vs. 1.10 are provided as an auxiliary data file. The HD forcing data are: a) HD5-JSBACH In order to generate daily input fields of surface runoff and drainage, the land surface scheme JSBACH (vs. 3 + frozen soil physics; (Ekici et al., 2014)) was forced globally at 0.5° with daily atmospheric forcing data based on the Interim Re-Analysis of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ERA-Interim; (Dee et al., 2011)). These forcing data are bias-corrected (see (Beer et al., 2014)) towards the so-called WATCH forcing data (WFD; (Weedon et al., 2011)) that have been generated in the EU project WATCH. b) HD5-MPIHM The MPI-M hydrology model MPI-HM (Stacke and Hagemann, 2012) was driven by daily WATCH forcing data based on ERA-Interim (WFDEI; (Weedon et al., 2014)) from 1979-2009 to generate daily input fields of surface runoff and drainage at global 0.5° resolution. c) HD5-MESCAN Six hourly data of surface runoff and drainage (variable name: percolation) were retrieved from the MESCAN-SURFEX regional surface reanalysis (Bazile et al., 2017) created in the EU project UERRA (Uncertainties in Ensembles of Regional ReAnalysis; www.uerra.eu). SURFEX (Masson et al., 2013) is a land surface platform that was driven by atmospheric forcing at 5.5 km. The forcing comprises 24h-precipitation, near-surface temperature and relative humidity analyzed by the MESCAN surface analysis system as well as radiative fluxes and wind downscaled at 5.5 km from the 3DVar re-analysis conducted with the HARMONIE system at 11 km (Ridal et al., 2017). The latter has been generated using six-hourly fields of the ERA-Interim reanalysis as boundary conditions and covers a domain comprising Europe and parts of the Atlantic, which is similar to the European domain of the Coordinated Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) at 11 km.
This experiment comprises data that have been used in Hagemann et al. (submitted). It comprises daily data of surface runoff and subsurface runoff from HydroPy and simulated daily discharges (river runoff) of the HD model. The discharge data close the water cycle at the land-ocean interface so that the discharges can be used as lateral freshwater input for ocean models applied in the European region. a) HD5-ERA5 ERA5 is the fifth generation of atmospheric reanalysis (Hersbach et al., 2020) produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). It provides hourly data on many atmospheric, land-surface, and sea-state parameters at about 31 km resolution. The global hydrology model HydroPy (Stacke and Hagemann, 2021) was driven by daily ERA5 forcing data from 1979-2018 to generate daily input fields of surface and subsurface runoff at the ERA5 resolution. It uses precipitation and 2m temperature directly from the ERA5 dataset. Furthermore, potential evapotranspiration (PET) was calculated from ERA5 data in a pre-processing step and used as an additional forcing for HydroPy. Here, we applied the Penman-Monteith equation to calculate a reference evapotranspiration following (Allen et al., 1998) that was improved by replacing the constant value for albedo with a distributed field from the LSP2 dataset (Hagemann, 2002). In order to initialize the storages in the HydroPy model and to avoid any drift during the actual simulation period, we conducted a 50-years spin-up simulation by repeatedly using year 1979 of the ERA5 dataset as forcing. To generate river runoff, the Hydrological discharge (HD) model (Hagemann et al., 2020; Hagemann and Ho-Hagemann, 2021) was used that was operated at 5 arc minutes horizontal resolution. The HD model was set up over the European domain covering the land areas between -11°W to 69°E and 27°N to 72°N. First, the forcing data of surface and sub-surface runoff simulated by HydroPy were interpolated to the HD model grid. Then, daily discharges were simulated with the HD model. b) HD5-EOBS The E-OBS dataset (Cornes et al., 2018) comprises several daily gridded surface variables at 0.1° and 0.25° resolution over Europe covering the area 25°N-71.5°N x 25°W-45°E. The dataset has been derived from station data collated by the ECA&D (European Climate Assessment & Dataset) initiative (Klein Tank et al., 2002; Klok and Klein Tank, 2009). In the present study, we use the best-guess fields of precipitation and 2m temperature of vs. 22 (EOBS22) at 0.1° resolution for the years 1950-2018. HydroPy was driven by daily EOBS22 data of temperature and precipitation at 0.1° resolution from 1950-2019. The potential evapotranspiration (PET) was calculated following the approach proposed by (Thornthwaite, 1948) including an average day length at a given location. As for HD5-ERA5, the forcing data of surface and sub-surface runoff simulated by HydroPy were first interpolated to the HD model grid. Then, daily discharges were simulated with the HD model. Main reference: Hagemann, S., Stacke, T. Complementing ERA5 and E-OBS with high-resolution river discharge over Europe. Oceanologia. Submitted.
The GRDC Freshwater Fluxes into the World’s Oceans is a web application provided by the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC) to present the Freshwater Fluxes into the World’s Oceans data product. Continental freshwater input into the oceans is computed by the GRDC at irregular intervals, most recently in December 2020 referencing the time period 1901–2016. Previous data sets prepared in 2004, 2009 and 2014 are integrated into the service.
Time series of daily and/or monthly river discharge data of more than 9200 stations from 160 countries, comprising around 390,000 station-years with an average time series length of about 42 years. The earliest daily data are from the year 1806, the most recent from the year 2016.
The Global Terrestrial Network for River Discharge (GTN-R) is a component of the Global Terrestrial Network - Hydrology (GTN-H) supported by Global Climate Observing system (GCOS) and the Hydrology and Water Resources Programme of the WMO (HWRP). The basic idea of the GTN-R project is to draw together the already available real-time discharge data provided by the National Hydrological Services (NHS) and to redistribute it in a standardised way. Core component is the GCOS Baseline River Network of gauging stations located near to the mouth of the World's major rivers. In cooperation with the Hydrological Services of the WMO Member States this network is constantly being extended by confirmation of additional stations. The GCOS Baseline River Network is a project in progress with a current status as of December 2014 of 245 gauging stations worldwide. GRDC contributes to the GTN-H by the collection of river discharge data of these so-called GTN-R stations. As a first step, the data of daily river discharge at the GRDC stations corresponding to the GCOS Baseline River Network are provided to the public via the Geoportal of the German Federal Institute for Hydrology (BfG) using a standard Sensor Observation Service (SOS). The provision via the GEOSS Portal is intended (further details will be communicated in due time):
The Long-Term Mean Monthly Discharges and Annual Characteristics offer basic statistics of all stations being represented in the Global Runoff Database: - annual means, lowest, and highest monthly discharges for individual years, - long-term mean, lowest, and highest monthly discharges of time series with at least five years of observation each with at least ten monthly values, - long-term inner-annual mean, lowest and highest monthly discharges of time series with at least five values of a specific month, and their standard deviations. The monthly primary values are provided station by station as ASCII-text files, named with pvm-prefix and station numbers. For download, all files are grouped by WMO Regions. Please note, that statistics are only provided for timeseries of daily discharge values from years with less than ten months and months with less than ten days missing.
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