In July/August 1988 a seismic reconnaisance survey was carried out with F.S. Polarstern on the perennially ice covered East Greenland shelf between latitudes 73°N and 81°N. The data format is Society of Exploration Geophysicists SEG Y. 14 reflection seismic lines with a total length of 2.016 km and 12 sonobuoy refraction profiles were recorded. The following results were obtained: •On the wide Holm Land shelf province north of 79°N three possible Cretaceous rift basins were observed. •A buildup of layered extrusive basaltic rocks forming a wedge of seaward dipping reflectors underlies the Holm Land continental slope. •On the Northeastern Greenland shelf province the existence of a wide sedimentary basin was demonstrated north of 76°N. •South of 76°N four volcanic structures from the continent to ocean were observed: The zone of Early Tertiary plateau basalts (zone I) that occur landward of an escarpment, a flat lying basaltic flow unit immediately seaward of the escarpment (zone II), an elongate wedge of seaward dipping reflectors (zone IIIa), a basaltic flow unit which in places shows seaward dipping beds of short length (zone IIIb), and the oceanic crust. •Dyke swarms and intrusions of inferred Neogene age were recognized at several locations.
In the period from February 13th to March 2nd 1980 4,037 km of magnetic, gravity and bathymetric lines and 1,195 km of digital reflection seismic lines were recovered on the 2nd leg of METEOR cruise no. 53. Heat flow measurements have been performed on 13 stations; on two stations sonobuoy refraction measurements and dredging have been carried out. From a preliminary interpretation of the seismic monitor records the Mazagan Plateau is part of the Moroccan Meseta. Seawards of this stable swell lies the 75 km wide, downfaulted rift graben characterized by salt diapirs. A submarine body, 150 square kilometres large, lying at the foot of the Mazagan Escarpment in water depths of 3000 m - 3800 m beneath sea level, from which western flank few granitic fragments were retrieved, is interpreted as a subsided and tilted block of the Mazagan Plateau. The north-trending magnetic anomalies, discovered during METEOR cruise no. 46 within the Essaouira continental margin segment have also been recognized within the Tafelney Plateau segment, situated between latitudes 30°45'N and 31°30'N off Morocco. Two neo-volcanic zones were found west of the Conception Bank and west of the Betancuria Massif/Fuerteventura Is. The Mesozoic and Tertiary depositional sequences are highly deformed by small piercement structures interpreted as dykes within these zones.
The CINCA marine geoscience investigations on the convergent continental margin of Chile between 19°S and 33°30'S were accomplished during three legs of RV SONNE cruise SO-104, from 22. July to 15. October 1995. The objectives of the first leg are to contribute to an understanding of the geological architecture and of the tectonic mechanism in the area of the Chile convergent zone through a geophysical assessment of the tectonic structures of the Chile continental margin and the adjacent oceanic Nazca plate. During the first leg from 22. July to 24. August 1995 multichannel seismic reflection data with BGR's new digital streamer were collected along a systematic grid with a total traverse length of 4,494 km simultaneously with the acquisition of magnetic, gravimetric, Hydrosweep and Parasound data over a total traverse length of 7,012 km. GFZ's mobile land array of 12 seismic stations recorded the air gun shots fired by RV SONNE within the CINCA area. Three seismic lines were surveyed between 32°30'S and 33°30'S in the area of the CONDOR project. Here, the surface of the downbending oceanic crust is smooth. The 5,000 m to 6,000 m deep trench floor is underlain by sediments, in excess 2,500 m thick. The inner trench slope consists of a landward thickening accretionary wedge which terminates against a body forming the base of a fore arc basin near Valparaiso. The principal area of the CINCA project extends between 19°S and 26°S and comprises the convergent continental margin, the Peru-Chile trench and the seaward adjacent part of the Nazca plate up to approximately 75°W longitude. The tectonic regime of these units of the CINCA area is very different from the tectonic system of the respective units of the CONDOR area. The Eocene-aged and sediment-starved oceanic crust of the Nazca plate becomes blockfaulted when approaching the outer trench slope break. The 50 km to 70 km wide outer trench slope is characterized by a complex system of horst and graben structures in the CINCA area probably resulting from the strong downbending. Steep fault scarps forming the flanks of the horsts reach vertical offsets varying between few hundreds of metres to 1,000 m, and locally even more. The 7,000 m to 8,l00 m deep trench is very narrow and mostly sediment-starved in the CINCA area. Morphology and architecture of the continental margin of the CINCA area are controlled by planar and listric faulting and tilted blocks of inferred continental nature, which apparently slid down into the trench. The inferred continental blocks, overlying a reflective mass, are covered by sediments of presumably turbiditic nature. An accretionary wedge is difficult to define on the seismic single channel records from the CINCA area. However, processed seismic data show a deep reflective mass underlying the downfaulted blocks of inferred continental nature. This deep reflective mass is interpreted to consist of a tectonically eroded and underplated continental crust-basalt melange forming the transition between the downfaulted continental upper plate and the subducting oceanic lower plate. Complex structural highs of still unknown origin and nature have been observed on the upper continental slope at 20°S, 24°S and 25°S. The northernmost structural high represents the seaward termination of the Iquique fore arc basin. The accuracy of the acquired gravity and bathymetric data is very good, i.e. better than 1 mGal and less than 10 m. The Chile trench is associated with strong negative gravity anomalies, and the continental margin is characterized by several positive and negative gravity anomalies of varying size and amount. The first results of magnetic modeling show, that the intensive blockfaulting of the oceanic crust across the outer trench slope causes no loss of the magnetization of the oceanic crust. The air gun shots fired by RV SONNE in 50 m intervals along 17 seismic traverses were recorded by GFZ's mobile land array in the coastal area of Chile. Good quality data were obtained out to about 100 km distance and in some cases even out to about 150 km.
The major pre-alpine tectonic lineaments as the Glückstadt Graben and the Avalonia-Baltica suture zone run across the southern Baltic. The BalTec-expedition aimed at the gapless imaging of these fault systems from the seafloor down to the Paleozoic basement. Scientifically the expedition was motivated by two hypotheses. We postulated that advances and retreats of ice-sheets during the glacials initiated and reactivated faulting of the Post-Permian succession, thereby generating several kilometers long near-vertical faults and anticlines. We further postulated that – in contrast to the generally accepted text book models – deformation of the initially up to 1800 m thick Zechstein salt started already during salt deposition as the consequence of salt load induced basin subsidence and resulting salt creep. The profile network was further designed to allow for linking the stratigraphy between previously generated local underground models in the frame of the TUNB project. Altogether we collected 62 reflection seismic profiles of an entire length of 3500 km. Parasound and multibeam data were collected along 6000 km each. The marine gravimeter collected data along the entire ship’s track of 7000 km. Two wide-angle reflection / refraction profiles have been measured in order to image the deep structure of the Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone off Poland and to investigate North-South striking fault systems in the Bay of Kiel.
During the period from 1974 to 2010 various cruises from BGR acquired seismic lines worldwide. The aim of these marine expeditions was a detailed survey of the geological structure.
The results of the 1978 SONNE survey by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), in the Coral Sea indicated the presence of narrow rift valleys beneath the outer margins of the Queensland and Papuan Plateaus. On the margins of these valleys, features were observed which were then interpreted to be large fossil reefs underlying an Eocene/Oligocene unconformity. These conclusions were important because they indicated that the Coral Sea Basin region is ideal for research into the fundamental problems concerning the development of continental margins. That is, the region offers similar problems to areas of the world where detailed studies are currently being conducted (e.g. West African margin) but with less complicated superimposed structure and a much thinner sediment cover. During the period from 29th November 1980 to 9th January 1981 a 'follow up' survey on the first and second leg of cruise SO-16 using the R/V SONNE was carried out in the northern Coral Sea, around the margins of the Coral Sea Basin, by the BGR in co-operation with the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics, Canberra (BMR) and the Geological Survey of Papua New Guinea, Port Moresby (GSPNG). The survey, which was divided into a geophysical cruise (first leg of SO-16) and a geological sampling cruise (second leg of SO-16), resulted in the recording of about 7,140 km of bathymetric and gravimetric data, of about 6,950 km of magnetic data, 3,150 km of digital multichannel seismic reflection profiles, 3,560 km of analogue single channel seismic reflection profiles, 10 sonobuoy refraction profiles and the sampling of 16 stations by dredging and 9 by coring. In the period from 9th January to 6th February 1981, geophysical investigations on the 3rd leg of SONNE cruise SO-16 were carried out in the Arafura Sea between Tanimbar, Aru and Kai Islands, and in the southern part of the Makassar Strait by BGR in co-operation with the Geological Research and Development Centre, Dept. Mines and Energy of Indonesia, Bandung and the Indonesian lnstitute of Sciences (LIPI), Bandung. 4,060 km of bathymetric and gravity lines, 3,080 km of magnetic lines, 1,415 km of reflection seismic lines (digital and analogue), and 9 sonobuoy profiles were recorded during this leg. Objectives of the Arafura Sea survey were determination of (a) thickness, seismic pattern, tectonic style and subsidence of the Cenozoic/Mesozoic depositional sequences at the transition from the Australian continental shelf to the Tanimbar outer arc ridge and (b) the configuration of the Precambrian rocks of the above mentioned transition zone. Objectives of the Makassar Strait survey were determination of (a) the nature and configuration of the acoustic basement underlying the South Makassar Basin, (b) the formation and nature of the sediments overlying the acoustic basement, (c) the regional distribution of a major unconformity of assumed Middle Miocene age as observed on profile VA16-24 of the VALDIVIA cruise VA-16 in 1977 in order to get a better understanding of the development of the South Makassar Basin.
The cruise BGR95 from 19th November to 28th December 1995 with M.S. AKADEMIK NEMCHINOV was designed to acquire new marine geophysical data for a better understanding of the geological processes and structural variations of the Cretaceous-aged oceanic crust of the Angola Basin in the South Atlantic regarding its reflectivity pattern, its shape of the basement surfaces and its crustal thickness. These evaluations were extended onshore to the ‘Damara Igneous Province’. The aim of this study was the investigation of the rift-related volcanic-magmatic processes accompanying the initial stage of the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. The survey was a co-operation of BGR, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, University of Göttingen and Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt/Main. The M.S. AKADEMIK NEMCHINOV generated the seismic signals by a tuned airgun array of 3260 cu.in. (= 53.4 l) together with two AWI owned large volume guns of 2 x 2000 cu.in. (= 65.6 l), recorded the MCS signals with a 3000 m streamer and controlled the shot releases for the ocean bottom hydrophones (OBH’s) and the onshore seismic stations (PEDAS). A total of 5,114 km of multichannel seismic reflection data in parallel with magnetic and gravity measurements have been collected onboard the M.S. AKADEMIK NEMCHINOV. 1069.4 km of the seismic work was done on 3 combined refraction/wide angle offshore and onshore traverses. The offshore part was recorded by 7 ocean bottom hydrophones (OBH) operated by the M.V. POLAR QUEEN (Reichert et al., 1996). The registration onshore Namibia was performed by 25 mobile seismic landstations (PEDAS) on each profile (Schulze et al., 1996). First results are described in the offshore and onshore reports of these investigations (Reichert et al., 1996, and Schulze et al., 1996). The data clearly show distinct series of the seaward dipping reflector sequences (SRDS) and isochronous variations in the accretion of the oceanic crust. The onshore and offshore registrations show deep arrivals from diving and refracted waves in a range up to 200 to 400 km.
Between 08.11.1999 and 02.12.1999 the active convergent margin off Costa Rica was investigated using the S/V Professor Polshkov. The cruise had three scientific targets. Several seismic profiles in the dip-direction of the subduction zone were acquired to map the general variability of the accretionary wedge. Near the Jaco Scarp, a dense net of seismic profiles using a smaller seismic source should deliver information about the amount of gas hydrates within the shallow sub-surface. In an area of this wedge south of the Quepos Plateau densely spaced seismic lines were measured to prepare an ODP campaign (which was finished in 2011 as IODP Expedition 334).
Reconnaissance surveys were carried out in 1974 within the framework of the BGR program "Geoscientific studies in the North Atlantic". The areas covered were the continental margin of Spitsbergen, the Barents Sea and the Norwegian continental margin. On the R/V LONGVA (10th August, 1974 - 10th September, 1974) multichannel seismic measurements were carried out on 40 lines with a total length of 8,091 km. The data format is Society of Exploration Geophysicists SEG Y.
The Scientific staff and crew onboard CCGS Louis S. St. Laurent (LSL) returned September the 10th, 2001 from a scientific expedition to the Nares Strait, the northernmost waterway connecting the Arctic and Atlantic oceans. The data format is Society of Exploration Geophysicists SEG Y. The ice conditions in the strait required the support of Canada's largest ice breaker. The ship was a versatile platform for 34 scientists to accomplish their marine investigation. The LSL has a history of supporting international scientific expeditions including an oceanographic transect of the Arctic Ocean in 1994 and a biological study of the Canadian Arctic Islands in 1999. Germany (Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, BGR) and Canada (Geological Survey of Canada) undertook a 5-week scientific cruise to study and explore the geological structure and evolution of the Nares Strait. The primary objective was the study of structural features relating to the formation of the Arctic Ocean and, in particular, the study of the Wegener Fault. This fault is a linear boundary between Greenland and Ellesmere Island which was noted by the German scientist Alfred Wegener in 1915 and later became the subject of a major scientific controversy. The co-operative cruise, which was planned over a period of 2 years, provided the basis for a wide range of scientific investigations, from marine seismic work and climate change studies through airborne magnetic investigations to geodetic survey measurements and geological sampling onshore. Systematic geophysical offshore studies in this key area had not been undertaken before. Where towing of seismic equipment was not possible because of ice coverage, magnetic maps were made using a helicopter-borne magnetic sensor system. Sediment and water samples taken during the cruise provide information on changes in climate and sea ice cover from the last ice-age to the present. An 11 m-long sediment core from outer Jones Sound is the longest core ever taken in the Canadian Arctic channels and holds clues to the detailed climate history of northern Baffin Bay.
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