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  • The dataset comprises the locations of outcrops with respective information on the lithology, stratigraphy, rock age and tectonic data collected during the CASE expeditions. The data attributes include stereographic projections and sketches of tectonic structures derived from the outcrop data. At the end of the 1980s, BGR initiated the research program Circum-Arctic Structural Events (CASE) to reconstruct the plate tectonic processes during the evolution of the Arctic Ocean using terrestrial data from the surrounding continental margins. One of the scientific questions of the CASE programme is as simple as it is complex: How did the Arctic Ocean, this large basin between the Eurasian and North American continental plates, develop? There are still no conclusive answers to this question in terms of plate tectonics. In contrast to the marine expeditions of geophysicists in the Arctic Ocean, geologists on land along the various coastal areas of the Arctic Ocean can directly touch, examine and map rocks, structures, folds and fault zones and determine the respective ages of the movements. This makes it possible to directly compare rock units and deformation zones on different continental plates and thus also to reconstruct when these plates collided, how long they remained next to each other and when and how they separated again. Since the inception of BGR’s Arctic research, the primary focus and research areas have been along the continental margins between Spitsbergen and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago via Greenland, to the Yukon North Slope on the border with Alaska. On the opposite side of the Arctic Ocean, there have been expeditions to Yakutia, the mainland areas near the Laptev Sea, the New Siberian Islands and to the Polar Ural with Russian partners. An important method for the interpretation of the geological evolution of the Arctic is the examination of tectonic structures (faults, folds, cleavage etc.), the determination of the kinematics and the age of the tectonic movements.

  • In the frame of the Continental Margin Study Program of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR, Hannover) marine geophysical measurements (48-channel reflection seismic, sono-buoy refraction, gravity and magnetic) were conducted over the Atlantic continental margin of Canada from 23th July to 7th August 1979 with S.V. EXPLORA (BGR79 leg 2). The survey on the Canadian continental margin was planned in cooperation between the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) and the Atlantic Geoscience Centre of the Geological Survey of Canada (Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmonth, N.S.) on the base of existing Canadian multichannel seismic lines. A main target of the cruise was to acquire data which allow a comparison of the deep sedimentary basins offshore Nova Scotia with the already known basins offshore Morocco. The eastern part of the survey imaged complex structural deformation due to salt diapirs. The western seismic lines allowed to investigate the structural relationship between the Scotian Basin and the Georges Bank.

  • The multidisciplinary marine geoscientific expedition ARK-25/3 was focused on the Greenland part of northern Baffin Bay and was aimed to acquire new geoscientific data to be used for modelling the evolution of the Greenland continental margin and its hydrocarbon prospective. The data format is Society of Exploration Geophysicists SEG Y. The cruise was performed under the direction of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources Hannover in cooperation with the Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven. Using 70 days of ship time onboard the research icebreaker R/V POLARSTERN a comprehensive data set was acquired along profiles extending from the deep oceanic basin in the central part of North Baffin Bay onto the Greenland continental margin in an area which was bordered by the Kane Basin in the North and Disko Island in the South. By means of multi-channel seismic, wide angle seismic, gravimetric and magnetic methods the structural inventory of the crust in the NW Baffin Bay was investigated. Additionally, heat flow data and sediment cores were collected along lines crossing the Greenland continental margin. The cores were extracted for geochemical and geomicrobiological analysis to be used for basin modelling, studying the hydrocarbon potential, and the hydrocarbon degradation by microorganisms under polar conditions. Geological sampling in the coastal area was done between Melville Bay and Washington Land. The collected rock material will be used to derive constraints on the erosion history of the coastal area. Aeromagnetic data was acquired covering a substantial part of the marine survey area to investigate magnetic signatures of the oceanic crust and the continental margin. This report summarizes the working programme and contains the documentation of acquired data and first results of the expedition.

  • Reconnaissance surveys were carried out in 1974 within the framework of the BGR program "Geoscientific studies in the North Atlantic". The areas covered were the continental margin of Spitsbergen, the Barents Sea and the Norwegian continental margin. On the R/V LONGVA (10th August, 1974 - 10th September, 1974) multichannel seismic measurements were carried out on 40 lines with a total length of 8,091 km. The data format is Society of Exploration Geophysicists SEG Y.

  • From 1st May to 25th May 2011 the French Institute from Brest Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER) together with BGR conducted a scientific cruise on the IFREMER research vessel L'ATALANTE, which constitutes the 1st leg of the MIRROR survey. In order to acquire supplementary marine geophysical research data to the MIRROR scientific survey a 2nd leg was performed from 2nd June to 11th June 2011. Both legs are spread over the shelf edge and slope of Morocco, the adjacent Essaouira Rise, and the easternmost abyssal plain, and are located between 33°30' N and 30°30' N. The region of MIRROR Leg 2 is situated south of Leg 1. The main research objectives were to image the deep structure of the crust, to test the origin of the magnetic anomaly S1, and to test rifting models in order to understand the nature of the continental margin of Morocco as well as the opening history of the Atlantic Ocean. Another objective was to realize a comprehensive sediment basin analysis for specifying the hydrocarbon potential of the region. In total multi-channel seismic lines with a length of 1,391 km and additional 271 km with the other geophysical methods (magnetic field measurements as well as bathymetry) were acquired. The seismic data acquired during Leg 2 were processed onboard and two of the lines were interpreted. Line BGR11-208 traverses from DSDP Site 415 to Site 416 and ties the MCS grids of both MIRROR legs as well as other former MSC surveys of BGR. Therefore, the line enables a reliable regional seismostratigraphic interpretation and a moderately well mapping of the Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Cenozoic sequences. Large compressional structures are present in the sedimentary cover along the seismic line pointing to transform faults or an activated fracture zone. Regarding the NWW-SEE trending line BGR11-202 the area of investigation can be subdivided into three structural units, a zone of rifted continental margin, a zone of initial seafloor spreading, and a zone of regular seafloor spreading as well as post-Cretaceous igneous activity. Huge rotated basement blocks are located under the shelf and uppermost slope and striking salt domes at the lowermost slope. The zone of initial seafloor spreading is characterized by a sub-basement reflector with overlying tilted basement blocks. The sub-basement reflector trends generally horizontal and appears to be a detachment fault. The magnetic slope anomaly S1 is located at foot of the slope near the western boundary of the zone of rifted continental margin.

  • The area of the 1st leg of METEOR cruise no. 67 lies off the Moroccan coast between longitudes 32.5°N and 35°N and latitude 12°W. Within this continental margin segment multichannel reflection seismic measurements were carried out in parallel with magnetic and gravimetric measurements on 22 lines with a total length of 4,378 km during the period from January 20th to February 13th 1984, with the research objectives: i) to collect new geophysical data for a better understanding of magmatic-volcanic and tectonic processes during the initial drifting phase, and ii) to search for suitable positions for deep drilling sites of the "Ocean Drilling Programme" in the transition zone between continental and oceanic crust. A distinct and sharp reflection seismic boundary running from about 31°30'N/11°W in the south to 34°30'N/10°25'W in the north separates flat-lying Mesozoic sediments overlying slightly structured basement of the Jurassic "Magnetic Quiet Zone" from the complex Moroccan piercement zone in the east. A prominent magnetic anomaly, called S1, is nearly coincident with the sharp reflection seismic boundary, and is thought to represent most probably the initial drifting zone. The Moroccan piercement zone is interpreted to represent the eastern part of a pre-Jurassic rift-basin which conjugated western part lies off Nova Scotia/Canada. Subsidence associated with small-scale rotational block-faulting was time-transgressive in the Moroccan piercement zone, e.g. it started in Triassic time in the central part of the rift-basin and affected successively its landward parts apparently due to successively cooling of the stretched and thinned crust. Weak magnetic anomalies trending approximately NE-SW were recorded within the Jurassic "Magnetic Quiet Zone" lying west of magnetic anomaly S1. These anomalies can be correlated over distances of up to 300 km. They are interpreted to represent either variations of the geomagnetic field intensity or field reversals during a time of weak geomagnetic field.

  • During RV SONNE cruise 137 from 21st November to 28th December 1998 Geoscientific Investigations on the active Convergence Zone between the east Eurasian and Indo-Australian Plate (GINCO I) were carried out along the Sunda Arc, off Sumatra, Java and the Sunda Strait. The studies were headed by the BGR in close cooperation with German and Indonesian research institutions. A total amount of 5,500 km of magnetic, gravity and swath bathymetric profiles were recorded of which multi-channel seismic data exceeded 4,100 km. The scientific objectives were: (1) investigation of the structure and age of the accretionary wedges, outer arc highs and fore-arc basins off Sumatra and Java with special emphasis on the evolution of the Sunda Strait and the Krakatau area (2) differences in tectonic deformation between oblique (Sumatra) versus frontal (Java) subduction (3) search for oceanic crustal splinters in the accretionary wedges (4) definition of seismic sequences, thicknesses and ages of the fore-arc basin sediments as a pre-requisite for later on hydrocarbon assessments (5) identification and regional occurrence of bottom simulating reflectors (BSR) indicating gas hydrates. From the GINCO I project there is evidence for the existence of two accretionary wedges along the Sunda Arc: wedge I is of assumed Paleogene age and wedge II of Neogene to Recent age. The first inner wedge I is composed of tectonic flakes which are correlated from SE Sumatra across the southern Sunda Strait to NW Java. This implies a very similar plate tectonic regime at the time of the flake development during the Upper Oligocene to Lower Miocene and without marked differences in plate convergence direction from Java to Sumatra. Wedge I shows backthrusting along the northern transition toward the fore-arc basin. Today, wedge I forms the outer arc high and the backstop for the younger, outer wedge II. Magnetic, gravity and seismic results show, that within both wedges, there are no indications for an oceanic crustal splinter as hitherto postulated. Both wedges are underlain by oceanic crust of the subducting Indo-Australian slab which could be correlated from the trench off Sumatra up to 135 km to the northeast and up to 65 km from the trench off Java. Since the top of the oceanic crust differs considerably in reflectivity and surface relief we distinguished two types in the seismic records. One type is characterized by strong top reflections and a smooth surface and underlies accretionary wedge II and the southwest part of the wedge I (outer arc high) off Sumatra and Java. The second type has a low reflectivity and a rougher relief and underlies the tectonic flakes of accretionary wedge I (outer arc high) between the southwestern tip of Sumatra, the SundaStrait and NW Java. The missing outer arc high off the southern entrance of the Sunda Strait is explained by Neogene transtension in combination with arc-parallel strike-slip movements. The NW-SE running, transpressional Mentawai strike-slip fault zone (MFZ) was correlated from the SE Sumatra fore-arc basin to the NW Java fore-arc basin. Off the Sunda Strait northward bending branches of the MFZ are connected with the Sumatra Fault zone (SFZ). It is speculated that the SFZ originally was attached to the Cimandiri-Pelabuhan-Ratu strike-slip faults and shifted from the volcanic arc position into the fore-arc basin area due to clockwise rotation of Sumatra with respect to Java as well as due to increasingly oblique plate convergence since the late Lower Miocene. We explain the transtension of the western Sunda Strait (Semangka graben) and the transpression with inversion of the eastern Sunda Strait, along the newly detected Krakatau Basin, by this rotation. Seismostratigraphic interpretation revealed 5 main sequences (A - E), tentatively dated as Paleogene to Recent in age. The oldest seismic sequence A of assumed Eocene to Oligocene age is bounded at the top by a major erosional unconformity that was identified on all GINCO seismic profiles. The seaward diverging seismic pattern of sequence A is interpreted as a correlative sequence to the prograding Paleogene deltaic sediments encountered by wells offshore central and northern Sumatra. This is opposed to previous interpretation which assumed seaward dipping reflector sequences of basaltic origin erupted along the former Mesozoic passive margin of Sumatra. According to constructed time structure maps, the main NW-SE running depocentres of the post-Paleogene sediments are arc-parallel off Sumatra and Java with thicknesses of 3 s (TWT) and 5 s (TWT), respectively. The main depocentres of the Semangka graben and of the Krakatau Basin of the Sunda Strait strike north-south and have infills of 2 s - 5 s (TWT). Bottom simulating reflectors (BSR) occur within the upper sequences C - D along the flanks of the fore-arc basins and along doming structures but could not be detected in basin centres. Empiric relations of heat flow values and depths of BSR were determined indicating that with increasing waterdepth and decreasing heat flow the depths of the BSR increase.

  • During leg 3 of cruise SO81, starting in Caldera/Costa Rica at September 15th and ending in Balboa/Panama at September 28th, 1992, the first 48-channel seismic survey was carried out in the Hess Deep area as a German contribution of pre-site investigations for Leg 147 of the Ocean Drilling Programme. ODP Leg 147 is designed to drill the crust-mantle transition. During leg SO81/3 the BGR collected 662 km of seismic data and in addition gravity and hydroacoustic measurements were carried out. Profile SO81-HD001 runs W-E from and to 1 Ma old oceanic crust across the East Pacific Rise. The profiles SO81-HD002 to SO81-HD007 are located in the proper Hess Deep area passing onto the proposed drill sites. Preliminary on-board evaluation of the seismic monitor records gives a lot of interesting intracrustal reflection events which deserve more elaborate examination after proper processing of the seismic data.

  • The Scientific staff and crew onboard CCGS Louis S. St. Laurent (LSL) returned September the 10th, 2001 from a scientific expedition to the Nares Strait, the northernmost waterway connecting the Arctic and Atlantic oceans. The data format is Society of Exploration Geophysicists SEG Y. The ice conditions in the strait required the support of Canada's largest ice breaker. The ship was a versatile platform for 34 scientists to accomplish their marine investigation. The LSL has a history of supporting international scientific expeditions including an oceanographic transect of the Arctic Ocean in 1994 and a biological study of the Canadian Arctic Islands in 1999. Germany (Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, BGR) and Canada (Geological Survey of Canada) undertook a 5-week scientific cruise to study and explore the geological structure and evolution of the Nares Strait. The primary objective was the study of structural features relating to the formation of the Arctic Ocean and, in particular, the study of the Wegener Fault. This fault is a linear boundary between Greenland and Ellesmere Island which was noted by the German scientist Alfred Wegener in 1915 and later became the subject of a major scientific controversy. The co-operative cruise, which was planned over a period of 2 years, provided the basis for a wide range of scientific investigations, from marine seismic work and climate change studies through airborne magnetic investigations to geodetic survey measurements and geological sampling onshore. Systematic geophysical offshore studies in this key area had not been undertaken before. Where towing of seismic equipment was not possible because of ice coverage, magnetic maps were made using a helicopter-borne magnetic sensor system. Sediment and water samples taken during the cruise provide information on changes in climate and sea ice cover from the last ice-age to the present. An 11 m-long sediment core from outer Jones Sound is the longest core ever taken in the Canadian Arctic channels and holds clues to the detailed climate history of northern Baffin Bay.

  • The initial study area of the cruise MSM14/2 GeoNORM (Geophysik im noerdlichen Roten Meer) was the northern Red Sea. However, because of not given research permissions from Egypt and Saudi Arabia, the study area had to be changed to the alternative study area Eratosthenes Seamount (ESM), south of Cyprus. The ESM is supposed to represent a continental fragment of the former African-Arabian Plate that is entering the subduction zone south of Cyprus i.e. the subduction turns into collision in the area of the ESM. This changed the entire tectonic setting in the Eastern Mediterranean. Therefore, the tectonic evolution of the area is rather complex with phases of extension, subduction, compression, salt tectonics and gravitational processes and not comprehensively understood. Because of the isolation of the ESM as a continental fragment this region is an ideal spot to investigate the transition from regular subduction to continental collision and its associated tectonic processes i.e. faults were activated or reactivated, transform motion has to be compensated, the overriding plate has been elevated. This impacts the ongoing geological and tectonic processes in this region but also influences the social and economic life in the Eastern Mediterranean as earthquakes and submarine landslides are possible geohazards and the entering of the ESM to the subduction trench alters the thermal history of the adjacent sedimentary basins significantly what should have an influence on the maturity processes within the source rock sediments and new faults open new migration paths for hydrocarbon fluids or gases.

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