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  • The global climate model system MPI-ESM-LR was applied to create an ensemble of 30 members for the historical period 1950-2005 and a continuation of the simulations for the RCP8.5 period 2006-2099. Additionally, a pre-industrial control run was performed for 1950-2099 with atmospheric pCO2 of 1850. All members were subsequently directly regionalized using the regionally coupled MPIOM-REMO climate model system consisting of the global ocean model MPIOM focused with its horizontal resolution on the North Sea and the regional atmospheric model REMO over the EURO CORDEX22 region (euro-cordex.net), which was fully coupled with MPIOM in this region. For extreme value analyses, certain variables were stored with hourly time step. Here, global sea surface height and regional (EURO CORDEX22) u and v wind components at 10 m above ground are available. Further data can be requested from the authors.

  • Sea level pressure is a fundamental weather and climate element and the very basis of everyday weather maps. Daily sea level pressure distributions provide information on the influence of high and low pressure systems, air flow, weather activity, and, hence, synoptic conditions. Using sea level pressure distributions from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis 1 (Kalnay et al., 1996) and a simplified variant of the weather-typing scheme by Jenkinson and Collison (1977) atmospheric circulation over the North Sea has been classified as to pattern and intensity on a daily basis starting in 1948. A full account of the original weather-typing scheme can be found in Loewe et al. (2005), while the variant scheme has been detailed in Loewe et al. (2006). The analysis has been carried out on the original 16-point grid. Though formally valid at its central point (55°N, 5°E), results are representative of the North Sea region between 50°N-60°N and 0°E-10°E. The modified scheme allows for six weather types, namely four directional (NE=Northeast, SE, SW, NW) and two rotational types (C=cyclonic and A=anticyclonic). The strength of the atmospheric circulation is classified by way of a peak-over-threshold technique, employing re-calibrated thresholds for the gale index G* of 28.3, 36.6, and 44.6 hPa for gale (G), severe gale (SG), and very severe gale (VSG), respectively (Loewe et al., 2013). Technically, the set of weather-typing and gale-classification rules is implemented as a lean FORTRAN code (lwtnssim.f), internally known as "Simple Lamb weather-typing scheme for the North Sea v1". The processing run was done on a Linux server under Debian 10 (Buster). Both, weather types and gale days, form a catalogue of more than 70 annual calendars since 1948 that is presented and continuously updated to the present day at https://www.bsh.de/EN/DATA/Climate-and-Sea/Weather-and-Gales/weather-and-gales_node.html. This catalogue concisely documents synoptic conditions in the North Sea region. Possible benefits are manifold. Special events and episodes in regional-scale atmospheric circulation are easily looked up and traced. Beyond that, the dataset is well suited for frequency, trend, persistence, transition, and extreme-value statistics.

  • For the calculation of the data "AIS Vessel Density", the data of the Universal Shipborne Automatic Identification System (AIS) were evaluated with regard to various parameters and ship types under stochastic aspects. The data are requested once a year for the past year from the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA). Among others, the information is collected and stored for the purpose of securing maritime traffic and is used for the manufacture of products produced for navigation by the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH). The data "AIS Vessel Density" represent the mean spatial density distribution of the ships. The mean spatial ship density is the current number of ships that could be expected in a defined area (grid cell) at any time during a reference period under consideration. The counting distinguishes between five types of vessels: fishing vessels, cargo vessels, tankers, passenger vessels and all vessels.

  • For the calculation of the data "AIS Vessel Density", the data of the Universal Shipborne Automatic Identification System (AIS) were evaluated with regard to various parameters and ship types under stochastic aspects. The data are requested once a year for the past year from the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA). Among others, the information is collected and stored for the purpose of securing maritime traffic and is used for the manufacture of products produced for navigation by the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH). The data "AIS Vessel Density" represent the mean spatial density distribution of the ships. The mean spatial ship density is the current number of ships that could be expected in a defined area (grid cell) at any time during a reference period under consideration. The counting distinguishes between five types of vessels: fishing vessels, cargo vessels, tankers, passenger vessels and all vessels.

  • For the calculation of the data "AIS Vessel Density", the data of the Universal Shipborne Automatic Identification System (AIS) were evaluated with regard to various parameters and ship types under stochastic aspects. The data are requested once a year for the past year from the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA). Among others, the information is collected and stored for the purpose of securing maritime traffic and is used for the manufacture of products produced for navigation by the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH). The data "AIS Vessel Density" represent the mean spatial density distribution of the ships. The mean spatial ship density is the current number of ships that could be expected in a defined area (grid cell) at any time during a reference period under consideration. The counting distinguishes between five types of vessels: fishing vessels, cargo vessels, tankers, passenger vessels and all vessels.

  • For the calculation of the data "AIS Vessel Traffic Density", the data of the Universal Shipborne Automatic Identification System (AIS) were evaluated with regard to various parameters and ship types under stochastic aspects. The data are requested once a year for the past year from the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA). Among others, the information is collected and stored for the purpose of securing maritime traffic and is used for the manufacture of products produced for navigation by the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH). The data "AIS Vessel Traffic Density" represent the mean spatio-temporal density distribution of the ships. This is the average number of ships that have passed through a defined area (grid cell) in a certain period of time. The counting distinguishes between five types of vessels: fishing vessels, cargo vessels, tankers, passenger vessels and all vessels.

  • For the calculation of the data "AIS Vessel Traffic Density", the data of the Universal Shipborne Automatic Identification System (AIS) were evaluated with regard to various parameters and ship types under stochastic aspects. The data are requested once a year for the past year from the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA). Among others, the information is collected and stored for the purpose of securing maritime traffic and is used for the manufacture of products produced for navigation by the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH). The data "AIS Vessel Traffic Density" represent the mean spatio-temporal density distribution of the ships. This is the average number of ships that have passed through a defined area (grid cell) in a certain period of time. The counting distinguishes between five types of vessels: fishing vessels, cargo vessels, tankers, passenger vessels and all vessels.

  • For the calculation of the data "AIS Vessel Density", the data of the Universal Shipborne Automatic Identification System (AIS) were evaluated with regard to various parameters and ship types under stochastic aspects. The data are requested once a year for the past year from the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA). Among others, the information is collected and stored for the purpose of securing maritime traffic and is used for the manufacture of products produced for navigation by the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH). The data "AIS Vessel Density" represent the mean spatial density distribution of the ships. The mean spatial ship density is the current number of ships that could be expected in a defined area (grid cell) at any time during a reference period under consideration. The counting distinguishes between five types of vessels: fishing vessels, cargo vessels, tankers, passenger vessels and all vessels.

  • For the calculation of the data "AIS Vessel Traffic Density", the data of the Universal Shipborne Automatic Identification System (AIS) were evaluated with regard to various parameters and ship types under stochastic aspects. The data are requested once a year for the past year from the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA). Among others, the information is collected and stored for the purpose of securing maritime traffic and is used for the manufacture of products produced for navigation by the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH). The data "AIS Vessel Traffic Density" represent the mean spatio-temporal density distribution of the ships. This is the average number of ships that have passed through a defined area (grid cell) in a certain period of time. The counting distinguishes between five types of vessels: fishing vessels, cargo vessels, tankers, passenger vessels and all vessels.

  • Sea Surface Temperature from Remote Sensing in North Sea and Baltic Sea

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