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Land cover

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  • The Sentinel-2 fractional vegetation cover (fCover) product for the Netherlands was produced as part of the NextGEOSS project at the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The goal is to derive abundance maps from atmospherically corrected Sentinel-2 multispectral images for: photosynthetically active vegetation (PV); and for combined non-photosynthetically active vegetation (NPV) and bare soil (BS). The fCover product for the Netherlands has been generated by processing 10 cloud-free Sentinel-2 tiles which covered the country on 8 September 2016. The map has a spatial resolution of 60m x 60m. The Sentinel-2 scene classification layer was used to ensure that the spectral unmixing was only performed on areas of vegetation or soil. The abundance maps were made by performing MESMA unmixing on each pixel from an endmember library of PV and combined NPV + BS spectra. The purest pixels in a scene, called endmembers, were extracted using the Spatial-Spectral Endmember Extraction (SSEE) approach. The PV and NPV+BS endmembers were classified with a random forest approach and selected to form the spectral library. The spectral library was used in the µMESMA unmixing to get the PV and NPV+BS abundances.

  • Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) from MODIS data for Europe at 1 km resolution. Source data: - MODIS/Terra Surface Reflectance 8-Day L3 Global 500 m SIN Grid (MOD09A1 v006): https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/products/mod09a1v006/ The corresponding MODIS/Aqua product (MYD09A1 v006) could not be used due to the fact that the Aqua satellite has a number of broken detectors resulting in unreliable data for band 6 (SWIR) measurements. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra MOD09A1 Version 6 product provides an estimate of the surface spectral reflectance of Terra MODIS Bands 1 through 7 corrected for atmospheric conditions such as gasses, aerosols, and Rayleigh scattering. Along with the seven 500 meter (m) reflectance bands are two quality layers and four observation bands. For each pixel, a value is selected from all the acquisitions within the 8-day composite period. The criteria for the pixel choice include cloud and solar zenith. When several acquisitions meet the criteria the pixel with the minimum channel 3 (blue) value is used. For the time periods October 2016 - March 2017 and August 2020 - April 2021, the original data has been reprojected to ETRS89-extended / LAEA Europe and aggregated to a 1 km grid. The temporal resolution is 8 days. Bad quality pixels (cloud, cloud shadow, dead detector, solar zenith angle too large, etc.) have been masked using the provided quality assurance (QA) layers and appear as "no data". File naming: productCode.acquisitionDate[A (YYYYDDD)]_mosaic_spatialResolution_frequency_VI.tif example: MOD09A1.A2016353_mosaic_1000m_8_days_MNDWI.tif The date is Year and Day of Year. Values are MNDWI * 10000. Example: Value -5099 = -0.5099

  • The objective of the pan-European project CORINE Land Cover (CLC) is the provision of a unique and comparable data set of land cover for Europe and the delivery of regular updates to register also the land cover and land use changes over time. It is part of the European Union programme CORINE (Coordination of Information on the Environment). The mapping of the land cover and land use was performed on the basis of satellite remote sensing images. The first CLC data base CLC1990, which was finalized in the 1990s, consistently provided land use information comprising 44 classes, out of which 37 classes are relevant in Germany. The first two updates for Europe were based on the reference years 2000 and 2006. For Germany, DLR-DFD was responsible for the creation of CLC2000 and CLC2006 on behalf of the Federal Environment Agency. In addition to the updated land cover, change datasets were also parts of the project. For deriving a meaningful CLC2000 change product, it became necessary to re-interprete parts of the satellite data of 1990 and to create a revised product, called CLC1990 (rev). Further details: http://www.dlr.de/eoc/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-11882/20871_read-48836/

  • The objective of the pan-European project CORINE Land Cover (CLC) is the provision of a unique and comparable data set of land cover for Europe and the delivery of regular updates to register also the land cover and land use changes over time. It is part of the European Union programme CORINE (Coordination of Information on the Environment). The mapping of the land cover and land use was performed on the basis of satellite remote sensing images. The first CLC data base CLC1990, which was finalized in the 1990s, consistently provided land use information comprising 44 classes, out of which 37 classes are relevant in Germany. The first two updates for Europe were based on the reference years 2000 and 2006. For Germany, DLR-DFD was responsible for the creation of CLC2000 and CLC2006 on behalf of the Federal Environment Agency. In addition to the updated land cover, change datasets were also parts of the project. For deriving a meaningful CLC2000 change product, it became necessary to re-interprete parts of the satellite data of 1990 and to create a revised product, called CLC1990 (rev). Further details: http://www.dlr.de/eoc/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-11882/20871_read-48836/

  • The objective of the pan-European project CORINE Land Cover (CLC) is the provision of a unique and comparable data set of land cover for Europe and the delivery of regular updates to register also the land cover and land use changes over time. It is part of the European Union programme CORINE (Coordination of Information on the Environment). The mapping of the land cover and land use was performed on the basis of satellite remote sensing images. The first CLC data base CLC1990, which was finalized in the 1990s, consistently provided land use information comprising 44 classes, out of which 37 classes are relevant in Germany. The first two updates for Europe were based on the reference years 2000 and 2006. For Germany, DLR-DFD was responsible for the creation of CLC2000 and CLC2006 on behalf of the Federal Environment Agency. In addition to the updated land cover, change datasets were also parts of the project. For deriving a meaningful CLC2000 change product, it became necessary to re-interprete parts of the satellite data of 1990 and to create a revised product, called CLC1990 (rev). Further details: http://www.dlr.de/eoc/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-11882/20871_read-48836/

  • The objective of the pan-European project CORINE Land Cover (CLC) is the provision of a unique and comparable data set of land cover for Europe and the delivery of regular updates to register also the land cover and land use changes over time. It is part of the European Union programme CORINE (Coordination of Information on the Environment). The mapping of the land cover and land use was performed on the basis of satellite remote sensing images. The first CLC data base CLC1990, which was finalized in the 1990s, consistently provided land use information comprising 44 classes, out of which 37 classes are relevant in Germany. The first two updates for Europe were based on the reference years 2000 and 2006. For Germany, DLR-DFD was responsible for the creation of CLC2000 and CLC2006 on behalf of the Federal Environment Agency. In addition to the updated land cover, change datasets were also parts of the project. For deriving a meaningful CLC2000 change product, it became necessary to re-interprete parts of the satellite data of 1990 and to create a revised product, called CLC1990 (rev). Further details: http://www.dlr.de/eoc/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-11882/20871_read-48836/

  • This land cover classfication of Germany was created using Sentinel-2 imagery from the years 2015 to 2017 and LUCAS 2015 in-situ reference data (https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/lucas). It contains seven land cover types: (1) artificial land, (2) open soil, (3) high seasonal vegetation, (4) high perennial vegetation, (5) low seasonal vegetation, (6) low perennial vegetation and (7) water with a spatial resolution of 10m x 10m. For further information, please see the following publication: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2020.102065

  • Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from MODIS data for Europe at 1 km resolution. Source data: - MODIS/Terra Vegetation Indices 16-Day L3 Global 500 m SIN Grid (MOD13A1 v006): https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/products/mod13a1v006/ - MODIS/Aqua Vegetation Indices 16-Day L3 Global 500 m SIN Grid (MYD13A1 v006): https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/products/myd13a1v006/ The MOD/MYD13A1 Version 6 product provide Vegetation Index (VI) values at a per pixel basis at 500 meter (m) spatial resolution. There are two primary vegetation layers. The first is the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), which is referred to as the continuity index to the existing National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA-AVHRR) derived NDVI. The second vegetation layer is the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), which has improved sensitivity over high biomass regions. The algorithm for this product chooses the best available pixel value from all the acquisitions from the 16 day period. The criteria used is low clouds, low view angle, and the highest NDVI/EVI value. For the time periods October 2016 - March 2017 and August 2020 - April 2021, the original data has been reprojected to ETRS89-extended / LAEA Europe and aggregated to a 1 km grid. The temporal resolution is 16 days. Bad quality pixels or pixels with snow/ice and/or cloud cover have been masked using the provided quality assurance (QA) layers and appear as "no data". File naming: productCode.acquisitionDate[A (YYYYDDD)]_mosaic_spatialResolution_frequency_VI.tif example: MOD13A1.A2020305_mosaic_1000m_16_days_NDVI.tif The date is Year and Day of Year. Values are NDVI/EVI * 10000. Example: Value 6473 = 0.6473

  • The objective of the pan-European project CORINE Land Cover (CLC) is the provision of a unique and comparable data set of land cover for Europe and the delivery of regular updates to register also the land cover and land use changes over time. It is part of the European Union programme CORINE (Coordination of Information on the Environment). The mapping of the land cover and land use was performed on the basis of satellite remote sensing images. The first CLC data base CLC1990, which was finalized in the 1990s, consistently provided land use information comprising 44 classes, out of which 37 classes are relevant in Germany. The first two updates for Europe were based on the reference years 2000 and 2006. For Germany, DLR-DFD was responsible for the creation of CLC2000 and CLC2006 on behalf of the Federal Environment Agency. In addition to the updated land cover, change datasets were also parts of the project. For deriving a meaningful CLC2000 change product, it became necessary to re-interprete parts of the satellite data of 1990 and to create a revised product, called CLC1990 (rev). Further details: http://www.dlr.de/eoc/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-11882/20871_read-48836/

  • The "AVHRR compatible Normalized Difference Vegetation Index derived from MERIS data (MERIS_AVHRR_NDVI)" was developed in a co-operative effort of DLR (German Remote Sensing Data Centre, DFD) and Brockmann Consult GmbH (BC) in the frame of the MAPP project (MERIS Application and Regional Products Projects). For the generation of regional specific value added MERIS level-3 products, MERIS full-resolution (FR) data are processed on a regular (daily) basis using ESA standard level-1b and level-2 data as input. The regular reception of MERIS-FR data is realized at DFD ground station in Neustrelitz. The Medium Resolution Imaging MERIS on Board ESA's ENVISAT provides spectral high resolution image data in the visible-near infrared spectral region (412-900 nm) at a spatial resolution of 300 m. For more details on ENVISAT and MERIS see http://envisat.esa.int The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) compatible vegetation index (MERIS_AVHRR_NDVI) derived from data of the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) is regarded as a continuity index with 300 meter resolution for the well-known Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from AVHRR (given in 1km spatial resolution). The NDVI is an important factor describing the biological status of canopies. This product is thus used by scientists for deriving plant and canopy parameters. Consultants use time series of the NDVI for advising farmers with best practice. For more details the reader is referred to http://wdc.dlr.de/sensors/meris/ and http://wdc.dlr.de/sensors/meris/documents/Mapp_ATBD_final_i3r0dez2001.pdf This product provides monthly maps.

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